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fmea_handbook V4.1.pdf

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FMEA_HANDBOOK V4
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FMEA Handbook Version 4.1 The subject matter contained herein is covered by a copyright owned by: FORD MOTOR COMPANY DEARBORN, MI Copyright ? 2004, Ford Motor Company This document contains information that may be proprietary. The contents of this document may not be duplicated by any means without the written permission of Ford Motor Company. All rights reserved February 2004 Any italicized text quotes the SAE J1739 (August, 2002) standard. FMEA Handbook – Table of Contents FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 TOC - 1Table of Contents Title Page Number Table of Contents TOC-1 Section 1 - Foreword 1-1 Section 2 - FMEA General Information 2-1 Section 3 - Design FMEA (DFMEA) 3-1 Section 4 - Process FMEA (PFMEA) 4-1 Section 5 - Concept FMEA (CFMEA) 5-1 Section 6 - Special Characteristics 6-1 Appendix A - FMEA Forms A-1 Appendix B - Helpful Tools for FMEA B-1 Appendix C - FMEA Checklist C-1 Appendix D - Ford Automotive Procedures (FAPs) D-1 Appendix E - FMEA Applications E-1 Glossary Glossary-1 Index Index-1 FMEA Handbook – Table of Contents TOC - 2 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 This page intentionally left blank Foreword FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 1 - 1Section 1 – Foreword Contents In This Section Description See Page FMEA Handbook Organization 1-2 Common Questions What Is the Purpose of this FMEA Handbook? 1-3 Can this FMEA Handbook be Given to Suppliers? 1-3 What Does this FMEA Handbook Contain? 1-3 Can the Guidelines Given in this FMEA Handbook be Supplemented? 1-4 FMEA Handbook Provenance 1-4 What Can I Read to Obtain More Background on FMEAs? 1-4 Where Can I Find More Information on Special Characteristics? 1-5 Why Does the Handbook Need a Revision? 1-5 What's New in the 2004 Update? 1-5 About this FMEA Handbook In this FMEA Handbook 1-7 Foreword 1 - 2 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 FMEA Handbook Organization FMEA Handbook Organization The 2004 version of the FMEA Handbook is divided into six sections with five appendices and a glossary: Section Title Contents 1 Foreword Provides general information about the FMEA Handbook. 2 FMEA General Information Provides general information about the FMEA process. 3 Design FMEA (DFMEA) Explains the Design FMEA process. 4 Process FMEA (PFMEA) Explains the Process FMEA process. 5 Concept FMEA (CFMEA) Explains the Design Concept or Process Concept FMEA process. 6 Special Characteristics Shows how FMEAs are used to identify Special Characteristics. Appendix A: FMEA Forms Appendix B: Helpful Tools for FMEA Appendix C: FMEA Checklist Appendix D: Ford Automotive Procedures (FAPs) Appendix E: FMEA Applications Glossary Foreword FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 1 - 3Common Questions What is the Purpose of this FMEA Handbook? This FMEA Handbook introduces Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and gives specific requirements for FMEAs at Ford Motor Company. Any italicized text quotes the SAE J1739 (Revised August 2002) standard. You can use this FMEA Handbook: ? To learn the basics of FMEA ? As a reference tool, after training ? To assist in the writing, preparation, review, and editing of FMEAs This FMEA Handbook is also intended to be used as a guide in deploying the Special Characteristics Operating System: i.e., to assist Ford engineering teams worldwide to identify product/process characteristics important to product safety, regulatory conformance, and customer quality. Specifically, the FMEA Handbook is intended to help deploy the policy and principles embodied in Ford Automotive Procedure – FAP 03-111. Can this FMEA Handbook be Given to Suppliers? This FMEA Handbook is available through FSN/FSP. Suppliers are encouraged to use it as a reference when they create FMEAs for Ford systems, sub-systems, and components. Excerpts from this FMEA Handbook are also available on the Ford Intranet at: http://www.quality.ford.com/cpar/fmea/ What Does this FMEA Handbook Contain? This FMEA Handbook contains instructions for preparing an FMEA, and answers the What, Why, When, Who and How regarding FMEA methodologies. This FMEA Handbook shows how to conduct three types of FMEAs: ? Design FMEA ? Process FMEA ? Concept FMEA Additionally, special applications of the three FMEA types are presented as examples. These special applications are machinery, environment, and software. Continued on next page Foreword 1 - 4 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 Common Questions, Continued What Does this FMEA Handbook Contain? (Continued) This FMEA Handbook provides additional Ford-specific information for the creation of FMEAs. The most notable areas to reference are: ? Concept FMEA ? Designations for the Classification column ? Reduced emphasis on RPN, emphasis on Severity, the Severity times Occurrence (Criticality), then RPN (Severity x Occurrence x Detection) ? The inclusion of Robustness Tools in the FMEA process Can the Guidelines Given in this FMEA Handbook be Supplemented? This FMEA Handbook introduces the topic of potential FMEA and gives general guidance in applying the technique. FMEA techniques are continually being improved. Additional actions to improve the FMEA techniques may be implemented by the people preparing the FMEA. However, these actions should not undermine FMEA objectives. FMEA Handbook Provenance This FMEA Handbook is consistent with the SAE Recommended Practice, SAE J1739 – “Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (Design FMEA) and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (Process FMEA), and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Machinery (Machinery FMEA)” revision. DaimlerChrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors jointly developed the first release of this practice under the sponsorship of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). SAE J1739 gives general guidance in the application of the technique. DaimlerChrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors representatives to the SAE have worked together to complete the latest revision of the SAE standards dated August 2002. For more information or for a copy of J1739, visit: http://www.sae.org/ Continued on next page Foreword FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 1 - 5Common Questions, Continued What Can I Read to Obtain More Background on FMEAs? Ford/GM/DaimlerChrysler Advance Product Quality Planning and Control Plan Reference (APQP) Ford/GM/DaimlerChrysler Quality System-9000 (QS-9000) AIAG http://www.aiag.org/ SAE http://www.sae.org/ FMEA website: http://www.quality.ford.com/cpar/fmea/ Where Can I Find More Information on Special Characteristics? FAP 03 –111 – Selection and Identification of Significant and Critical Characteristics. Throughout Sections 2 through 5 of this handbook, the term Special Characteristics is used to denote those designated characteristics like YC and YS in DFMEA and ? (sometimes referred to as CC) and SC in PFMEA. Refer to Section 6 for detailed discussion of these and other types of Special Characteristics. Why does the Handbook Need a Revision? ? Keep the handbook consistent with the industrial standard - new SAE J1739 was published in August, 2002, and a 2-column design control FMEA form is recommended. ? Improve the quality of the handbook - many recommendation, suggestions, and corrections have been received from experts, engineers, and suppliers since the publication of the previous version. The revision focused on achieving: o better flow of the contents; o better and clearer examples, definitions, and procedures; and o elimination of the inconsistencies and errors. What's New in the 2004 Update? The Version 4.1 minor update includes cosmetic updates and addition of an index. The Version 4.0 update included the following changes: The FMEA flow chart has been updated according to FAP 07-005 - Vehicle Program Quality/Reliability/Robustness Planning. The new chart not only illustrated the information flow in the process of FMEA development, but also defines the role of FMEA in the failure modes avoidance. FMEA focuses on preventing mistakes, while as the Robustness Engineering Design Product Enhancement Process (REDPEPR) focuses on improving product robustness. Continued on next page Foreword 1 - 6 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 Common Questions, Continued What's New in the 2004 Update? (Continued) SAE J1739 August 2002 The new SAE J1739 FMEA forms are introduced, and all the examples have been modified using the new form. Simplified FMEA Checklist This version of the handbook consolidated the “FMEA Checklist“, the “Design FMEA Checklist“, the “Process FMEA Checklist“, and the “FMEA Quick Reference“ of the previous version into a simplified FMEA Checklist given in Appendix C. Revised Examples Revised examples are included in the Design FMEA sections. FAP Reference The documents of FAP 07-005, and FAP 03-111 have been removed from the handbook. Instead, only the web addresses of the FAPs are given for the references. Concept FMEA The “Concept FMEA“ section has been moved from Section 3 in the previous version to Section 5 in this version after the “Design FMEA“ and “Process FMEA“ sections. Updated Glossary The Glossary has been updated. System Interface Analyzer (SIA) A tool for analyzing the system interfaces, developing the system Boundary Diagram and Interface Matrix has been briefly introduced. For more information, please visit: http://www.quality.ford.com/cpar/sia/ New FMEA Website For more information, please visit: http://www.quality.ford.com/cpar/fmea/ Continued on next page Foreword FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 1 - 7About this FMEA Handbook In this FMEA Handbook All italic type used in the body of this guide is text copied from the SAE J1739 standards. The following icons are used in the FMEA Handbook: Icon Meaning Definitions Examples Mechanics Cautionary Notes Ford Specific ip ip T ip ip TSuggestion/Tip Foreword 1 - 8 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 This page intentionally left blank FMEA General Information FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 2 - 1Section 2 – FMEA General Information Contents In This Section Description See Page FMEA Definition 2-3 FMEA Implementation 2-4 FMEA Purposes 2-5 General Benefits General Benefits 2-6 Best Practice FMEA 2-6 Types of FMEAs Types of FMEAs 2-7 Machinery Note 2-7 FMEA Flow and its Role in Failure Mode Avoidance (Robustness Linkages) 2-8 FMEA Flow (Robustness Linkages) 2-8 Useful Information Sources for Input to FMEA 2-10 FMEA Provides Input to 2-10 Change Point Approach FMEA Change Point Approach 2-11 Benefits of FMEA Types Concept FMEA Benefits and Uses 2-12 Concept FMEA Outputs 2-12 Design FMEA Benefits and Uses 2-13 Design FMEA Outputs 2-14 Process FMEA Benefits and Uses 2-15 Process FMEA Outputs 2-16 Continued on next page FMEA General Information 2 - 2 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 Section 2 Contents, Continued Description See Page In This Section (Continued) Generating FMEAs Who Initiates an FMEA? 2-17 Who Prepares an FMEA? 2-17 Who Updates an FMEA? 2-18 How do I Start or Update an FMEA? 2-18 When is an FMEA Started or Updated? 2-19 FPDS Timings 2-20 Who is the FMEA Customer? 2-20 When is an FMEA Completed? 2-21 How are FMEA Results Documented? 2-21 When Can FMEA Documents be Discarded? 2-21 Systems Engineering Relationships FMEAs Related to Systems Engineering 2-22 Systems Engineering Fundamentals 2-22 APQP Relationship 2-22 FMEA General Information FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 2 - 3FMEA Definition FMEA Definition An FMEA can be described as a systemized group of activities intended to: (a) recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and its effects, (b) identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring, and (c) document the process. It is complementary to the process of defining what a design or process must do to satisfy the customer. FMEAs identify potential and confirm Critical and Significant Characteristics to be addressed by design changes, process changes, or inclusion in Process Control Plans. FMEAs evaluate the adequacy of proposed controls and the need to mitigate risk by changes to the Design Verification Plan or the Manufacturing Control Plan. The intent of the evaluation and the proposed actions is to prevent failures from reaching the customers, improving customer satisfaction. For more information on Control Plans, refer to Appendix page B-31. FMEA General Information 2 - 4 FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 FMEA Implementation FMEA Implementation Because of the general industry trend to continually improve products and processes whenever possible, using the FMEA as a disciplined technique to identify and help minimize potential concern is as important as ever. Studies of vehicle campaigns have shown that fully implemented FMEA programs could have prevented many of the campaigns. One of the most important factors for the successful implementation of an FMEA program is timeliness. It is meant to be a “before-the-event“ action, not an “after-the-fact“ exercise. To achieve the greatest value, the FMEA must be done before a product or process Failure Mode has been incorporated into a product or process. Up front time spent properly completing an FMEA, when product/process changes can be most easily and inexpensively implemented, will minimize late change crises. An FMEA can reduce or eliminate the chance of implementing a preventive/corrective change, which would create an even larger concern. Communication and coordination should occur between all types of FMEAs. Studies performed within Ford have shown that significant savings in engineering time and other costs could have been realized if FMEAs were completed according to the FMEA “Best Practices.“ FMEA General Information FMEA HANDBOOK VERSION 4.1 — COPYRIGHT ? 2004 2 - 5FMEA Purposes FMEA Purposes General/overall purposes of an FMEA: ? Improves the quality, reliability and safety of the evaluated products/processes. ? Reduces product redevelopment timing and cost. ? Documents and tracks actions taken to reduce risk. ? Aids in the development of robust control plans. ? Aids in the development of robust design verification plans. ? Helps engineers prioritize and focus on eliminating/reducing product and process concerns and/or helps prevent problems from occurring. ? Improves customer/consumer satisfaction. FMEA purposes specific to Ford: ? Identifies Special Characteristics (Critical Characteristics and Significant Characteristics). ? Acts as a “lessons learned” input to System Des
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