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轮胎设计初步 Tire Design 101.pdf

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轮胎 设计 初步 TIRE DESIGN 101
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Tire Design 101 David examining, identifying, analyzing, mixing, and testing the rubber compounds on which tires are based. In like manner they research all-important, textile and steel reinforcement cords which are innovatively combined with the compounds to form the backbone of that advance structure. At the very outset of the tire making process, all new materials are tested and re-tested to make sure they are technologically sound and meet high standards of quality. Experimental and production tires undergo severe physical testing, for strength, endurance, ride and handling. Engineers put a variety of tires through road tests under more demanding conditions than normal driving would ever encounter, testing for tread wear, road handling, durability, and a host of other properties. More than 140 tests and tire inspections throughout the tire-making process ensure that each finished product measures up to quality standards. ? In the manufacturing process, it all comes together. The painstaking research, the computerized design, the careful steps of development, the extensive testing and retesting. A multi-million dollar investment in people and time, high technology equipment and facilities. Each component fabricated for used in the finished tire is continuously monitored for conformance to precise standards. Highly trained and skilled technicians assemble the tire components. Precision tire building equipment, used to fabricate the tire, is maintained to strict standards of performance and reproducibility. Rigorous inspection and final finish procedures are employed to assure that each tire exceeds a multitude of physical and cosmetic criteria. Computerized force measurement equipment tests each tire, passing only those tires which will meet strict ride standards. ? Inspection and monitoring continue into the marketplace. The ultimate test for the tire is in the hands of the customer on their own cars. Field engineers and sales staff monitor tire performance through daily customer contact. This constant field monitoring through field engineers tells the tire company how its tires are performing in actual use, how customers are responding to that performance, and how well they met the customers needs and desires. Tire companies are constantly responding to those customer needs and wants, continuously re-designing, re-developing, re-testing at the highest technological level. 4 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 1. Over 275 different raw materials are used in the manufacture of radial tires. 2. Large blocks of natural rubber are cut into more manageable smaller blocks. 3. Ovens are sometimes used to preheat and partially soften the rubber. 4. Plasticator is a mechanical natural rubber softener to further prepare the material for mixing. 5. All the raw materials, including the rubber are weighed to exacting standards and then thoroughly mixed by a powerful geared mixer – the banbury. 6. A mill is a series of rollers used to warm up rubber stock through mechanical action and to reduce the rubber to a thin sheet. 7. Tire cord fabric is processed through a cord treating unit to apply adhesive and to heat-set the fabric with carefully controlled time, temperature and tension. 8. Sheets of rubber are stored until they pass physical tests and are needed for production. 9. Rubber stock is warmed. 10. Rubber is milled to desired width and thickness to feed the extruder. 11. Extruder is used to force the rubber under pressure through a special form to exact tread dimensions and weight 12. Tread rubber is cooled to maintain stable dimensions and then cut to exact length. 13. Tread slabs are stored on metal trays until needed for final assembly. 5 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 14. A 3-roll calender produces thin sheets of rubber in the squeezing action of the rollers. 15. Sheeted gum stocks, used for tubeless inner-liner and special reinforcements, are stored until needed during tire building. 16. Treated cord fabric is dried, warmed and tensioned to facilitate rubber bonding to cord. 17. Calenders coat the fabric sheet with rubber. 18. A festooner is used to straighten the fabric and to provide “take-up” time while material is being rolled up. 19. Ply and belt fabrics are protected and stored until they pass physical tests and are needed for production 20. Fabric is cut on an angle prescribed by engineering 21. Bias cut fabric is spliced into a continuous sheet. 22. Spliced material is rolled up in protective liners and held for use in tire assembly. Belt manufacturing process is similar to 16-22 23. Plated and treated wire strands are unreeled and brought into a single bundle. 24. Wire is rubber coated. 25. A festooner acts as a take-up to hold wire during bead forming. 26. Wire is formed into a very close tolerance circle and fastened together to form a tire bead. 27. A fabric envelope and additional rubber stock is wrapped around the bead wire which will become an integral part to the finished tire. 6 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 28. Finished beads are stored on special racks until needed for tire assembly. 29. Tire components are assembled on a first step rotating collapsible drum called a building drum. 30. On the second tire building machine the belts, nylon overlay, and tread are added to complete the tire assembly. 31. The completed assembly is called a green tire. 32. Green tires are sprayed with mold release lubricants. 33. Painted tires are inspected and moved to the curing press. 34. Tires assume their final shape through the use of high pressure and high temperature in molding presses (vulcanization process). Tires are then fully inspected both internally and externally. 35. Cured (vulcanized) tires are moved to buffing and trimming area. 36. Tires are trimmed of excess molding material and sidewalls are buffed to reveal white letters or stripe. 37. Completed tire is electronically tested for force variation and out-of-balance conditions. 38. Tires are again scrutinized, by hand, for analysis of unacceptable finishing conditions. 39. Sample tires are selected from production and tested on indoor wheels to assure a high level of performance. 40. Labeled and stacked tires await shipment. 41. Tires are shipped to the warehouses and direct to customers throughout the world. 7 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 8 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 9 Tire Overview Making The Radial Tire 10 Tire Overview Types of Tires ? P-metric tires are used on passenger cars, SUV’s and light trucks ? LT-metric tires are used on SUV’s and light trucks (mostly over 8,500 lbs GVW and/or commercial applications) ? Floatation tires are used for extreme off- road use and provide good traction in mud ? Temporary spares are used for short periods and driving speeds limited to 55 mph ? Metric tires are sized for the European markets – Europe and the US define tire size differently. The differences are reflected in dimensions, tolerances on these dimensions, and load carrying capability for identical sizes 11 Tire Overview Types of Tires ? All season – dominant design for North America. Has good all year performance for our environment ? Touring – have more of a sporty ride and handling character than base all season tires ? Performance – are marked by lower aspect ratios and higher speed ratings ? Summer – designed for dry and wet handling and traction (dominant design for Europe where they prefer to use summer tires and winter tires for ultimate handling and traction for each season ? Winter – designed for ultimate snow traction ? Sealant – have a composite material applied to the inside tread area to fill punctures when they occur ? Extended mobility (run flat) – various versions of this technology that enables the tire to run for a short time (less than 100 miles) with no air pressure 12 Tire Overview Tire Design & Construction 13 Tire Overview Tire Design & Construction Product & Purpose ? Halobutyl liner – thin layer of rubber on inside of tire that lowers air permeation through the tire and serves as a tube for the tubeless tire ? Body ply – Textile and rubber product that carries load pneumatically and transmits horizontal forces from the bead to the tread area ? Beads – Metallic product that anchors the body ply and is the strength for maintaining mounting of tire on the rim ? Apex – filler rubber product on top of the bead that gives structural reinforcement for the sidewall ? Chafer – highly abrasive rubber or textile product that protects the lower bead area from damage of rim chafing against the lower sidewall ? Toe guard – rubber or textile product that protects the toe area from mounting damage ? Sidewall – rubber product that protects the body ply from the elements and provides visual esthetics (colors may be added) ? Steel belts – can be textile or steel and provide the hoop strength for the radial tire ? Belt wedge – rubber product between outer edges of the belts provide a layer for belt edge shear ? Nylon overlay – textile product placed over the belts that gives extra support/strength to the tread package. Reduces tire centrifugation for high speed applications. ? Tread – rubber product that incorporates a pattern to assist in traction and handling 14 Tire Overview Tire Design & Construction Product & Impact ? Liner – air retention by lowering permeation through the tire ? Body ply – handling, comfort, cornering, lower bead area endurance, rolling resistance, and high speed ? Beads – mounting, bead unseating, bead rotation on rim, handling, comfort, and lower bead area endurance ? Apex – handling, comfort, cornering, lower bead area endurance, bead unseating, and rolling resistance ? Chafer – protects carcass from rim abrasion, comfort, handling, and cornering ? Toe guard – rim adherence, mounting damage, bead unseating, bead wear, and comfort ? Sidewall – appearance, rolling resistance, handling, comfort, scratch cut and ozone resistance, high speed, and bead area endurance ? Steel belts – summit rigidity, cornering, handling, comfort, wear, rolling resistance, road hazard protection (breaking energy), growth, high speed limit and endurance ? Belt wedge – reduce belt edge shear, high speed limit and endurance ? Nylon overlay – high speed limit and endurance, growth control, handling, cornering, comfort, rolling resistance, wear, and road hazard protection ? Tread – wear, traction (dry, wet, and snow), rolling resistance, comfort, handling, cornering, protection for steel belts 15 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings ? Much information is contained on the sidewall, including the tire size and its capability. They also identify: – Key tire characteristics – Compliance with regulatory standards – Product attributes – Styling – Name of tire supplier 16 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings ? Three areas of sidewall markings: – Size description – Department of Transportation (DOT) number – Uniform Tire Quality Grade (UTQG) information ? Three most common sizing descriptions in North America are: – P-metric – LT-metric – LT-high floatation 17 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings 18 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings 19 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings 20 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings ? Department of Transportation (DOT) number – Since 1968, the US Government’s Department of Transportation (DOT) has had regulations for passenger tires, including testing and labeling, DOT 109, and tire selection for vehicle manufacturers, DOT 110. DOT 109 covers indoor test requirements, plus standards for tire labeling and serial number. The indoor tests include drum testing for high speed and endurance plus road hazard (plunger) and bead unseat tests. The current regulations, DOT 139 and modified DOT 110, were changed in 2003 as a result of the TREAD Act of 2000 21 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings 22 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings Uniform Tire Quality Grade (UTQG) ? The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Uniform Tire Quality Grade Standards (UTQG) were originated to provide consumers with useful information to help them purchase tires based on their relative treadwear, traction and temperature capabilities. It is required by law for P-metric tires (except winter tires) sold in the United States, but it is not required for deep treaded light truck tires. ? When looking at UTQG ratings it is important to realize that the Department of Transportation does not conduct the tests. The grades are assigned by the tire manufacturers based on their test results or those conducted by an independent testing company they have hired. The NHTSA has the right to inspect the tire manufacturer's data and can fine them if inconsistencies are found. 23 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings 24 Tire Overview Sidewall Markings Uniform Tire Quality Grade (UTQG) Treadwear Grades ? UTQG Treadwear Grades are based on actual road use in which the test tire is run in a vehicle convoy along with standardized Course Monitoring Tires. The vehicle repeatedly runs a prescribed 400-mile test loop in West Texas for a total of 7,200 miles. The vehicle can have its alignment set, air pressure checked and tires rotated every 800 miles. The test tire's and the Monitoring Tire's wear are measured during and at the conclusion of the test. The tire manufacturers then assign a Treadwear Grade based on the observed wear rates. The Course Monitoring Tire is assigned a grade and the test tire receives a grade indicating its relative treadwear. A grade of 100 would indicate that the tire tread would last as long as the test tire, 200 would indicate the tread would last twice as long, 300 would indicate three times as long, etc.
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