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炭罐系统培训 Carbon Canister System.pdf

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系统 培训 CARBON CANISTER SYSTEM
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Carbon Canister: How it works Presenter: Williams 2010 Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 2 Course Objectives ? Describe Carbon Canister functionality within the fuel system ? Discuss adsorption and desorption fundamentals. ? Assess design choices and the resulting effect on behavior. ? Provide an overview of the existing products/designs. Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 3 Contents ? Section 1 - General Awareness ? Section 2 - Carbon Functions and Properties ? Section 3 - Behavior ? Section 4 - Standard Testing ? Section 5 - Design ? Section 6 - Current Products ? Section 7 - Contacts Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 4 Section 1 - General Awareness ? What is a Carbon Canister ? What does it look like ? Where is it located ? Components Objectives Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 5 Section 1 - General Awareness What is a Carbon Canister and why do I need it? ? A Carbon Canister allows the fuel tank to ‘breath’ (due to thermal expansion or re-fueling) without emitting fuel vapor into the atmosphere. ? Vehicles must pass the emission standards as regulated by California Air Resources Board (CARB), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), The State of Texas, and the balance of the “Green States”. Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 6 Section 1 - General Awareness What is a Carbon Canister and why do I need it? CVV VMV Engine Canister Tank ? ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) Atmosphere Liquid Fuel Air Fuel Vapor closed open Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 7 Section 1 - General Awareness What is a Carbon Canister and why do I need it? CVV VMV Engine Canister Tank ? Purge (Carbon Regeneration) Air open open Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 8 Section 1 - General Awareness What does a Carbon Canister look like? ? Carbon Canisters come in a wide variety of shapes; primarily driven by vehicle packaging location. ? ACH Sandusky Legacy Canisters Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 9 Section 1 - General Awareness What does a Carbon Canister look like? ? Rawsonville Canisters Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 10 Section 1 - General Awareness What does a Carbon Canister look like? ? Delphi Canisters Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 11 Section 1 - General Awareness What does a Carbon Canister look like? ? Mahle Canister Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 12 Section 1 - General Awareness Where is a Carbon Canister located? Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 13 Section 1 - General Awareness Typical and optional components. Compression (Plate) Spring(s) Dust Box / CVV Assembly (Part of the Canister Assembly!) Purge Port Load Port Carbon Section 1 (Buffer) Carbon Section 2 Carbon Section 3 Carbon Section 4 Bleed Control Assembly (Honeycomb Element) Liquid Trap Filter Vent Port Mounting feature Not shown: -hoses -clips -bracket(s) -heat shield(s) -VBV/FTIV -FTPT Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 14 Section 1 - General Awareness Materials ? Carbon: Westvaco BAX type ? Plastic Housing: DuPont Impact modified Nylon 6 ? External Plates/Caps: DuPont Impact modified Nylon 6 ? Liquid Trap: DuPont Impact modified Nylon 6 ? Compression Plate(s): coated steel or glass filled Nylon ? Spring(s): coated music wire, stainless or galvanized ? Filter(s): Polyurethane open cell foam 30-80ppi Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 15 Section 1 - General Awareness Key Points ? What is a Carbon Canister? A ‘breathing device’ regulated by emission requirements. ? What does it look like? Rectangular, round, small, big; typically black. ? Where is it located? Between the fuel tank and ‘fresh air’ source, connected to the engine. ? What are the typical components? Load Port, Vent Port, Carbon, Compression method, Mounting feature Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 16 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties Objectives ? What is Activated Carbon? ? Adsorption/Desorption ? How is Activated Carbon Manufactured? ? Carbon Types ? Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 17 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties What is Activated Carbon? ? Activated Carbon is an amorphous form of carbon containing many irregularly-shaped pores ? Pore size (classified by IUPAC) ? micropores (pore width 500 ?) DEFINITION Microscopic View Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 18 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties Adsorption/Desorption Adsorption is a process in which matter is extracted from one phase and concentrated on the surface of another (phase) and is therefore termed a surface phenomenon. At ambient temperatures, adsorption is caused by intermolecular forces rather than by formation of new chemical bonds. These attractive forces operating at the surface form a physically adsorbed layer which may be compared to the condensation of a vapor to form a liquid. ? Hydrocarbon Adsorption Adsorption takes place within the pores of the carbon. Adsorption is an exothermic process. Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 19 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties Adsorption/Desorption Desorption is the reverse process of Adsorption, where concentrated matter is extracted from a surface. ? Hydrocarbon Desorption Desorption takes place within the pores of the carbon. Desorption is an endothermic process. Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 20 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW Activated Carbon Manufacturing ? MeadWestvaco Wood Based Automotive Carbons – A Green, Renewable Resource Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 21 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW - U.S. Carbon Plants Covington, VA Wickliffe, KY Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 22 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW Other Activated Carbon Facilities Ningde, China Waynesboro, GA Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 23 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW Activated Carbon Manufacturing ? Westvaco Manufacturing Process - Activation Wood Particles Catalyst Mixing Activation Multi-Staging Washing and Recovery Drying Screening Grinding Granular Products WV-A 1100 Powder Products Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 24 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW Activated Carbon Manufacturing ? Westvaco Manufacturing Process - Extrusion Powder Carbon Binder Batching & Mixing Extrusion Pellet Conditioning 1st Stage Heat Treatment 2nd Stage Heat Treatment BAX 950 BAX LBE Screening Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 25 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties MW Activated Carbon Manufacturing ? Westvaco Manufacturing Process – Multi Stage Activation for High Activity Carbons Wood Particles Catalyst Mixing Low Temperature Heat Treatment Drying Screening Multi-Staging Washing Conditioning & Shaping Activation Wood Particles Catalyst Mixing Low Temperature Heat Treatment Drying Screening Multi-Staging Washing Conditioning & Shaping BAX 1500 WV-A 1500 Activation Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 26 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties Granular Shaped/Pelletized BX 950, BX 1100, BX 1100*, BX 1500, BX 1700, BX LBE W-A 1100, W-C 1100*, W-A 1500,W-A 1700 * Available for China Domestic Use Only Carbon Types Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 27 ? Fundamental carbon properties affect performance in automotive evaporative emissions systems Carbon Properties and Effects Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties 1. Base Material ? Aging/Durability ? Fill Volume Variation/Density 2. Particle Size and Shape ? Pressure Drop/Restriction ? Kinetics (ORVR Performance) 3. Carbon Pore Size Distribution ? Working Capacity ? Aging/Durability 4. Pellet/Granule Size Distribution ? Pressure Drop/Restriction ? Fill Volume Variation 5. Hardness ? Durability 6. Dust ? Restriction 7. pH ? Durability 8. Density ? Adsorption Capacity ? Fill Volume Variation Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 28 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties Base Material Shape Pore Size Distribution Pellet/Granule Size Distribution Hardness Dust Content pH Density Durability Restriction Adsorption Capacity Fill Volume Variation HC Bleed Characteristic Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 29 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties ? Effect of Carbon Particle Size and Shape on Pressure Drop 0 5 10 15 20 25 Airflow Velocity (cm/s) Pressure Drop (kPa/cm) 8 x 35 10 x 25 8 x 25 6 x 18 2.2 mm Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 30 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties ? Carbon Pore Size Distribution West 11 BWC Competitive 11 BWC Pore Size Pore Volume Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 31 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties ? Effect of Pore Size Distribution on Aging 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 0 100 200 300 400 500 Cycle Number Working Capacity, g . West 11 BWC Competitive 11 BWC 2.1 liter Canister TF-1 Fuel 300 BV Purge Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 32 Section 2 Carbon Functions and Properties ? Apparent Density – Capacity 2 canisters with each having 100 g ORVR working capacity: Carbon Type: BX 1500 Carbon Volume: 2.3 liters Carbon Density: 290 g/liter Total Carbon Mass: 659 g = 1.45 lbs. Carbon Type: BX 950 Carbon Volume: 2.8 liters Carbon Density: 370 g/liter Total Carbon Mass: 1025 g = 2.26 lbs. Carbon Properties and Effects Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 33 Section 2 - Carbon Functions and Properties Key Points ? Adsorption/Desorption Adsorption is a phase change of vapor into liquid on a solid surface. Desorption is the reverse process of adsorption. ? Carbon Manufacturing Wood + Catalyst, Heat/Activation, Washing, Drying, Screening/Grinding/Extruding ? Carbon Types (Shapes/Activity) Granular, Pelletized, High Activity, Low Activity ? Carbon Properties and Effects Base Material, Shape Pore- and Particle- Distribution Hardness, Dust pH, Density Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 34 Section 3 - Behavior ? Fuel Vapor Purge Ability ? Fuel Vapor Load Ability ? Migration and resulting Bleed Emission ? Buffering Methods ? Ethanol Blends Objectives Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 35 Section 3 - Behavior Fuel Vapor Purge Ability Flow Rate CD338 2.1L BAX950 measured -150 -130 -110 -90 -70 -50 -30 -10 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Purge Volume [BV] Hydrocarbons removed [g] 80L/min 50L/min 22.7L/min 5L/minFuel Systems Carbon Canister 36 Section 3 - Behavior Fuel Vapor Purge Ability - Temperature 0.2cfm purge of 1.2L Canister (L/D=12) -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Purge Time [min] Hydrocarbons removed [g] 70 deg F 80 deg F 90 deg FFuel Systems Carbon Canister 37 Section 3 - Behavior Fuel Vapor Load Ability Load Rate 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Load Time [min] HC mass adsorbed until 2g BT [g] 400g/h 150g/h 40g/h 15g/h Effect of Hydrocarbon Load Rate on Break-Through-Capacity 1.8L NG Canister (calculated)Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 38 Section 3 - Behavior Migration and resulting Bleed Emissions Vapor Migration: towards the fresh air side of a Carbon Canister. Effect of Idle Time on Mass Profile 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.33 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Carbon Bed Lenght [cm] HC Load [g HC / g AC] 2g BT t+1d t+2d t+3d Pay attention to the ‘shelf-time’ of a loaded canister! Vapor Migration contributes to Bleed Emissions! Vapor Migration does not require flow! Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 39 Section 3 - Behavior Migration and resulting Bleed Emissions Bleed Emissions: Hydrocarbon molecules being purged off the carbon by small amounts of air traveling through the system. Bleed Emissions are worse after Vapor Migration! Bleed Emissions are caused by air flow! Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 40 Section 3 - Behavior Migration and resulting Bleed Emissions Effect of Bleed-Canister on Diurnal Emissions (CARB) 66.8 387.4 181.4 550.7 6.7 8.8 8.5 10.4 1 10 100 1000 3day (300BV) cyl 3day (300BV) rect 2day (150BV) cyl 2day (150BV) rect Worst Diurnal [mg] no Bleed Canister attached Bleed Canister attachedFuel Systems Carbon Canister 41 Section 3 - Behavior Migration and resulting Bleed Emissions Effect of Purge Volume on Bleed Emissions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 BV purged worst diurnal emission [mg] 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% % BWC purgedFuel Systems Carbon Canister 42 Section 3 - Behavior Buffering Methods A Buffer is a section of carbon in the purge stream, but not in the load stream. Design of internal Buffer Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 43 Section 3 - Behavior Buffering Methods Effect of Buffer Volume on Purge Concentration Effect of Canister Buffer Size on Vapor Concentration during a 150L Purge (starting at 2g BT, 1.0L useable Carbon Volume) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Purge-Time [min] Vapor Mass in Purge Line [%] no Buffer 0.2L Buffer 0.4L BufferFuel Systems Carbon Canister 44 Section 3 - Behavior Ethanol Blends Effect of Ethanol Concentration on ORVR Vapor Generation 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 E0 E10 E22 E85 Vapor Generation [g/gal] 0 3 6 9 12 RVPFuel Systems Carbon Canister 45 Section 3 Behavior Effect of Liquid on Purge Ability KEEP LIQUIDS (GASOLINE OR WATER) OUT OF THE CANISTER! Effect of liquid gasoline on purge ability -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 0 150 300 450 600 750 900 Purge amount [BV] HC mass removed [g] Vapor Condensate LiquidFuel Systems Carbon Canister 46 Section 3 Behavior Effect of Liquid on Purge Ability Example of water contamination Fuel Systems Carbon Canister 47 Key Points ? Fuel Vapor Purge Ability Slower Purge Rate – more hydrocarbons removed per volume of purge air Higher Purge Temperature – more hydrocarbons removed per volume of purge air ? Fuel Vapor Load Ability Higher Load Rate – less capacity until break-through ? Migration and resulting Bleed Emissions Migration – hydrocarbon molecules trying to reach equilibrium inside canister Permeation – hydrocarbon molecules trying to escape through walls Bleed Emissions – caused by migration and small amounts of air traveling through the canister ? Buffering Methods “Dip Tube” is currently the most effective solution Section 3 - Behavior ? Ethanol Blends Ethanol affects the RVP of the fuel, which governs Vapor Generation
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