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Design for Reliability Handbook (TR-2011).pdf

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DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY HANDBOOK TR
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TECHNICAL REPORT NO. ?TR-2011-24 AUGUST 2011 US ARMY MATERIEL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ACTIVITY ?ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND ?21005-5071 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY HANDBOOK ?i ?REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE ?Form Approved ?OMB No. 0704-0188 ?Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the ?data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. ?Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing ?this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA ?22202- 4302. ?Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently ?valid OMB control number. ?PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. ?1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) ?AUGUST 2011 ?2. REPORT TYPE ?Technical Report ?3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ?DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY HANDBOOK ?5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) ?Matthew J. Rhoads ?5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ?Director ?US Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity ?392 Hopkins Road ?Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD ?8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT ? NUMBER TR-2011-24 ?9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT ?NUMBER(S) ?12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ?APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT ?The Design for Reliability (DFR) process blends aspects of statistics, probability and reliability theory, and ?engineering analysis throughout a product lifecycle to evaluate, predict, and verify the application of robust design. ? Through application of DFR practices, the demand for highly-reliable systems can be met while insuring that the ?latest methods for the assessment of robust design and reliability risk-management are properly addressed. ?This ?document aims to discuss, in brief, the mathematic and engineering approaches involved in the DFR process. The ?topics covered introduce the stepped approach to analyzing materiel from conceptual design through production. ?15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION ? OF ABSTRACT ?18. NUMBER ?OF PAGES ?19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT ?UNCLASSIFIED ?b. ABSTRACT ?UNCLASSIFIED ?c. THIS PAGE ?UNCLASSIFIED ?SAME AS ?REPORT 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area ?code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) ?Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. iii ?CONTENTS ?Page LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi ?LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ vii ?ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................... viii ?LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................. ix 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................1 2. INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................2 ?2.1 Motivation ................................................................................................................2 ?2.2 Scope ........................................................................................................................2 ?2.3 Organization .............................................................................................................2 3. BLOCK DIAGRAMMING AND RELIABILTY ALLOCATION. ...................................4 ?3.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................4 ?3.2 Reliability Allocation. ..............................................................................................5 4. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................7 ?4.1 Overview. .................................................................................................................7 ?4.2 Fault Tree Development. .........................................................................................7 ?4.2.1 Top Level. ....................................................................................................7 ?4.2.2 Modeling Events. .........................................................................................7 ?4.2.3 Bottom Level. ..............................................................................................8 ?4.3 Assigning Allocations. .............................................................................................8 ?4.4 Benefits. ...................................................................................................................8 ?4.4.1 Design Issues. ..............................................................................................8 ?4.4.2 Root Cause Analysis. ...................................................................................8 ?4.4.3 Demonstrated vs. Allocated. ........................................................................9 ?4.4.4 Tradeoffs. .....................................................................................................9 5. RELIABILITY GROWTH TESTING ..............................................................................10 ?5.1 Overview. ...............................................................................................................10 ?5.2 Reliability Growth via Engineering Approaches. ..................................................11 ?5.3 FRACAS. ...............................................................................................................11 6. FMEA/FMECA..................................................................................................................13 ?6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................13 ?6.2 Inputs......................................................................................................................13 ?6.3 Risk Priority Numbers ...........................................................................................13 ?6.4 Criticality Analysis Method ...................................................................................15 ?6.4.1 Quantitative Criticality Analysis Method ..................................................15 ?6.4.2 Qualitative Criticality Analysis Method ....................................................15 ?6.5 Post Identification Investigation ............................................................................15 ?6.6 Process Benefits .....................................................................................................15 ?iv ?7. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE TESTING METHODS ............................................................16 ?7.1 Accelerated Life Testing. .......................................................................................16 ?7.1.1 Overview. ...................................................................................................16 ?7.1.2 Qualitative ALT. ........................................................................................16 ?7.1.3 Quantitative ALT. ......................................................................................16 ?7.2 Highly Accelerated Life Testing. ...........................................................................17 ?7.2.1 Approach ....................................................................................................17 ?7.2.2 Failure Analysis. ........................................................................................17 ?7.2.3 Corrective Action Verification ..................................................................18 ?7.2.4 Database Management. ..............................................................................18 ?7.2.5 Test Processes/Procedure ...........................................................................18 8. STRESS SCREENING METHODS..................................................................................20 ?8.1 Highly Accelerated Stress Screening. ....................................................................20 ?8.1.1 Overview. ...................................................................................................20 ?8.1.2 Approach. ...................................................................................................20 ?8.1.3 Precipitation ...............................................................................................20 ?8.1.4 Detection ....................................................................................................20 ?8.1.5 Failure Analysis .........................................................................................21 ?8.1.6 Corrective Action Verification ..................................................................21 ?8.1.7 Database Management ...............................................................................21 ?8.2 Environmental Stress Screening. ...........................................................................21 ?8.2.1 Overview. ...................................................................................................21 9. PHYSICS OF FAILURE ...................................................................................................22 ?9.1 Mechanical PoF Approach .....................................................................................23 ?9.1.1 The Dynamics Modeling Process ..............................................................23 ?9.1.2 Finite Element Method ..............................................................................23 ?9.1.3 Fatigue and Fracture ..................................................................................24 ?9.1.4 Testing........................................................................................................25 ?9.2 Electronic PoF Approach .......................................................................................26 ?9.2.1 Operational Environment ...........................................................................26 ?9.2.2 Software .....................................................................................................27 ?9.2.3 Modeling the CCA .....................................................................................27 ?9.2.4 Modal and Random Vibration Response Analysis ....................................27 ?9.2.5 Thermal Overstress Analysis .....................................................................27 ?9.2.6 Shock Response and Survivability Assessment .........................................27 ?9.2.7 Vibration Fatigue Life Assessment ............................................................27 ?9.2.8 Thermal Fatigue Life Assessment .............................................................28 ?9.2.9 Combined Fatigue Life Assessment ..........................................................28 ?9.2.10 Design to Reduce Vibration/Shock Failures ..............................................28 ?9.2.11 Design to Reduce Temperature Cycling Failures ......................................30 ?9.2.12 Design to Reduce Thermal Overstress Failures. ........................................31 ?9.3 Summary. ...............................................................................................................32 10. SOFTWARE-IN-SYSTEMS RELIABILITY ...................................................................33 ?v ?10.1 Reliability Block Diagrams and Reliability Allocation .........................................33 ?10.2 Software Reliability Growth Testing. ....................................................................34 ?10.3 Software Reliability Testing ..................................................................................37 ?10.4 Software FMECA ..................................................................................................37 ?10.5 Fault Tree Analysis for Systems Containing Software ..........................................38 11. SYSTEM AND SUB-SYSTEM LEVEL PROTOTYPING ..............................................40 ?11.1 Background. ...........................................................................................................40 ?11.2 Benefits of Prototyping Early in the Design Phase. ...............................................40 ?11.3 Rapid Prototyping. .................................................................................................41 ?11.4 Design Verification Testing. ..................................................................................41 ?11.5 Interface Testing. ...................................................................................................41 12. TEST AND EVALUATION .............................................................................................42 ?12.1 Test and Evaluation................................................................................................42 ?12.2 Testing....................................................................................................................42 ?12.2.1 Environmental Stress Screening ................................................................42 ?12.2.2 Accelerated Life Testing. ...........................................................................42 ?12.2.3 Design of Experiments ...............................................................................42 ?12.2.4 Reliability Qualification Testing................................................................43 ?12.2.5 Reliability Production Testing ...................................................................43 ?12.3 Physics of Failure and Testing cooperation. ..........................................................43 ?12.3.1 System Level Testing. ................................................................................44 ?12.3.2 Survey Testing. ..........................................................................................44 ?12.3.3 Component Analysis Testing. .............................................

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