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3 safety factors & reliability.pdf

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SAFETY FACTORS RELIABILITY
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Chapter-3 Safety Factors and Reliability Reliability analysis is an absolute necessity in modem day SCIence, where complex devices are utilized for military and scientific purposes. Unreliability has consequences in cost, time spent, psychological effect of inconvenience and, in certain instances, personal and national security. Reliability analysis procedures are more or less well organized and aptly documented in the form of military handbooks for electronic systems. The response and life of a structure varies because of the inherent uncertainties in loading, material properties, geometry, workmanship, maintenance and other aspects in the life cycle of the structure. To design a structure to perform its intended function with desired confidence, all the uncertainties involved must be considered in the design process. The traditional way ofdealing with uncertainties is to use conservative values of the uncertain quantities and/ or safety factors in the framework of deterministic design. Such deterministic based approaches have been shown to frequently yield overly conservative designs with inconsistent reliabilities among different components [34]. The concluding remarks of the Chapter-2 clearly indicate the essence of reliability based robust design (RBRD), which combines the theoretical soundness of reliability theory and the conceptual simplicity of the robust design. This chapter provides an understanding for connecting reliability with safety factor. Reliability plays an important role in the design and testing of aerospace structural elements and systems. Failure in anyone of these can be catastrophic for the mission. To achieve a low failure rate, systems / structural elements must possess high strength. Strength is a system's ability to withstand the stress that causes failures such as heat, chemicals reaction, and vibration. The concept of strength and its relationship to failure rates can be viewed as, whenever stress exceeds strength, a failure can occur and when the strength is lower, the failure rates are higher. The chance of stress exceeding strength, thus resulting in a failure, is related to the “interference area“ between the curves (see Figure -3.1). The term 'stress' should be considered in a broader sense as any applied load or load induced response quantity that has the potential to cause failure. 65
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