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大众汽车标准_VW_01106-1_英文 2003 Gas-Shielded Arc Welding.pdf

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大众汽车 标准 _VW_01106 英文 2003 GAS SHIELDED ARC WELDING
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Klass.-Nr. 04 81 7 May 2003 Gas-Shielded Arc Welding Sheet Steel Joints Design, Type, Quality Assurance VW 011 06-1 Konzernnorm Descriptors: welding, gas-shielded arc welding, steel, MIG welding, MAG welding, TIG welding, sheet steel, sheet steel joint, sheet metal Page 1 of 21 Fachverantwortung/Responsibility Normung/Standards (EZTD, 1733) K-QS-32 Herr Dr. Witt Tel.: 7 36 23 Fischer Tel: +49-5361-92 79 95 Sobanski Vertraulich. Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Weitergabe oder Vervielfltigung ohne vorher ige schriftl. Zustimmung einer Normenabteilung des Volkswagen Konzerns nicht gestattet. Vertragspartner erhalten die Norm nur ber die zustndige Beschaffungsabteilung. Confidential. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be transmitted or reproduced without the prior written permission of a Standards Department of the Volkswagen Group. Parties to a contract can only obtain this standard via the responsible procurement department. ? VOLKSWAGEN AG Norm vor Anwendung auf Aktualitt prfen / Check standard for current issue prior to usage. Form FE 41 - 01.03 Contents Page 1 Scope.................................................................................................................................. 2 2 Abbreviations and definitions .............................................................................................. 2 2.1 Abbreviations...................................................................................................................... 2 2.2 Definitions........................................................................................................................... 3 3 Gas-shielded arc welding procedure................................................................................... 4 3.1 Tungsten inert-gas welding (TIG)........................................................................................ 4 3.2 Gas-shielded metal-arc welding (MIG/MAG)....................................................................... 4 4 General requirements......................................................................................................... 5 4.1 Materials.............................................................................................................................. 5 4.2 Design................................................................................................................................. 8 4.3 Calculated joint dimensions .............................................................................................. 10 5 Requirements and quality assurance of welds.................................................................. 11 5.1 Weld quality....................................................................................................................... 11 5.2 Penetration depths............................................................................................................ 11 5.3 Weld forms........................................................................................................................ 12 5.4 Special weld forms ............................................................................................................ 17 5.5 Evaluation of irregularities................................................................................................. 20 6 Drawing entries................................................................................................................. 20 7 Referenced standards.......................................................................................................20 Changes The following changes have been made as compared to VW 011 06-1: 1997-01: ─ Standard restructured; ─ Figures revised; ─ Special weld forms supplemented; ─ s Nintroduced Previous issues 1997-01 Preface The following basic regulations are based on experience gained with partially and fully mechanized equipment and implemented tests and also on accepted engineering standards such as DIN standards and DVS Specifications. The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies the German version shall govern. QUELLE: NOLISPage 2 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 1 Scope This standard applies to the design, layout and quality assurance of arc-welded sheet-steel joints which are predominantly subject to dynamic loads. It encompasses the following procedures according to DIN EN ISO 4063: Characteristic value Procedure Code 131 Metal inert-gas welding MIG 135 Metal active-gas welding MAG 141 Tungsten inert-gas welding TIG for: butt and fillet welds, lap welds, plug welds and special weld forms of: uncoated and surface-finished sheet steels and of high-alloyed steels and stainless steels; for examples see section 3.1; workpiece thickness 0.5 mm to 6 mm with: test characteristics of acceptance level B (high requirement) according to DIN EN 25 817, see also DVS Specification 0705. All fusion-welded joints that do not fall within this scope require the clarification of the responsible engineering departments. Special measures made necessary by the component, e.g. change to the acceptance level for specific irregularities, are thus permissible and must be entered in the drawing. 2 Abbreviations and definitions 2.1 Abbreviations a Calculated throat thickness e Penetration f iSide wall penetration on component t if L Penetration length f StPenetration at the face surface F i Joining plane i h Gap size l Weld seam length L Length s Throat thickness s iThroat thicknesses with respect to sheet i s NSmallest common throat thickness t iSheet thickness of sheet i Σt Sum total of sheet thicknesses ? Diameter Page 3 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 2.2 Definitions The following definitions are valid for the application of this standard. 2.2.1 Welded joint Joint created by fusion welding. It comprises the weld, fusion line, zone influenced by heat and unaffected base material (Figure 1). 1 2 3 4 1 = Weld 2 = Zone influenced by heat 3 = Fusion line, fusion zone 4 = Unaffected base material Figure 1 - Fusion-welded joint NOTE The weld and fusion line may be identical. 2.2.1.1 Welded seam The area of the welded joint where the workpiece(s) are joined at the weld joint. The welded seam comprises the base material and/or the filler metal. 2.2.1.2 Fusion line Borderline between the material melted during welding and the material that remained solid. 2.2.1.3 Weld metal Material that solidified after welding, comprising either the base material or filler metal and base material. Elements in the weld metal can come from casings and/or accessory materials (DIN ISO 857-1). 2.2.1.4 Zone influenced by heat Area of the base material that remained solid, but experienced thermal microstructural changes due to the energy applied during welding. Page 4 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 2.2.1.5 Unaffected base material Area of the base material that experienced no evident microstructural changes as a result of the energy applied during welding. 2.2.2 Same types of material Materials which do not differ significantly in terms of their chemical composition and their suitability for welding (DIN 8528-1). 2.2.3 Different types of material Materials which differ significantly in terms of their chemical composition and their suitability for welding. 3 Gas-shielded arc welding procedure Gas-shielded arc welding is a form of fusion welding. An electrical arc is used as the heat source. It burns between the electrode and the workpiece. In this process, the arc and the weld pool are protected from the atmosphere by a shield of protective gas. The type of electrode determines the classification according to the following procedures: 3.1 Tungsten inert-gas welding (TIG) In this procedure, an arc is ignited between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. Argon or helium is used as the protective atmosphere. The additional material is (as in the case of gas welding) supplied from the side. 3.2 Gas-shielded metal-arc welding (MIG/MAG) In this procedure, an arc is ignited between the consumable end of the wire electrode (additional material) and the workpiece. The welding current flows via sliding contacts in the gun holder to the wire electrode. When inert gases (non-reactive gas, e.g. noble gases such as argon, helium or mixtures of both) are used as protective atmospheres, this is called metal inert-gas welding (MIG). When active gases (e.g. CO 2or mixed gases that contain CO 2and some oxygen) are used, this is called metal active-gas welding (MAG). This procedure is used to weld unalloyed and low-alloy steels. Page 5 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 4 General requirements Welds that are subject to mandatory documentation shall be evaluated according to the relevant type and/or component-specific test standards. Deviations with respect to the weld geometries and weld executions shall be detailed in the drawing, assured in tests and described in test standards. Further requirements with respect to gas-shielded arc welding are contained in the following. VW 011 06-2 Rework on Sheet Steel Joints VW 011 06-3 Al Welded Joints VW 011 42 Rework on Al Welded Joints When creating arc-welded sheet steel joints, the greatest possible design strength in terms of the design goal must be realized while also ensuring sufficient reliability and a favorable cost/quality ratio. To this end, every welded joint must be suitable for welding, i.e. the dimensions of the welding equipment and the accessibility of the weld according to DVS 0929 must be taken into consideration in the development design. “Weldability for service“ of a sheet steel joint is deemed to exist if the component, on the basis of its design (section 4.2) and with the material used (section 4.1), remains functional (Figure 2) under the intended operating stresses (section 4.3). Figure 2 - Representation of weldability according to DIN 8528-1 4.1 Materials The following list is not complete. Its purpose is to provide an overview of the weldable materials currently used in the automotive industry. The following have good welding properties: a) Cold-rolled flat products made from soft steels for cold working: DIN EN 10130 Material No. DIN 1623-1 (02.83) 1)DC01 1.0330 St 12 DC03 1.0347 RSt 13 DC04 1.0338 St 14 1)DIN 1623-1 was replaced in October 1991 by DIN EN 10130. Material Welding suitability Welding capability Manufacturing Weldability for service Design Component weldability Page 6 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 b) Cold-rolled strips St 2 to St 4 with the surface finish BK, RP, RPG according to DIN EN 10139. c) Hot-rolled strips with ≤ 0.20% C content, e.g. according to TL 1111. The following are also weldable: d) Hot-rolled products of unalloyed structural steels DIN EN 10025Material No. DIN 17100 (01.80) 2)-- 1.0037 St 37-2 S 235 JR 1.0114 St 37-2 R St37-2 S 235 JO 1.0116 St 37-3 S 355 J2G3 1.0570 St 52-3 weldable to a limited extent: E295 1.0050 St 50-2 2)DIN 17100 was replaced in March 1994 by DIN EN 10025. e) Cold-rolled strip and sheet with higher yield point for cold working made from micro-alloyed steels (SEW 093 of March 1987) f) Isotropic micro-alloyed cold-rolled strip (according to VW 500 17) is a further development of the traditional micro-alloyed cold-rolled strip ZStE260 to ZStE420 (formerly SEW 093). NOTE VW 500 17 defines the material requirements of isotropic micro-alloyed steels, placing particular emphasis on the mechanical properties. g) Cold-rolled flat products with high yield point for cold working made from micro-alloyed steels: DIN EN 10268Material No. H240LA 1.0480 H280LA 1.0489 H320LA 1.0548 H360LA 1.0550 H400LA 1.0556 DIN EN 10292Material No. H260LAD+Z, +ZF 1.0929 H300LAD+Z, +ZF 1.0932 H340LAD+Z, +ZF 1.0933 H380LAD+Z, +ZF 1.0934 H420LAD+Z, +ZF 1.0935 h) Hot-rolled flat products made from steels with a high yield point for cold working: DIN EN 10149-2 Material No. S315MC 1.0972 S355MC 1.0976 S420MC 1.0980 S460MC 1.0982 S500MC 1.0984 S550MC 1.0986 S600MC 1.8969 S650MC 1.8976 S700MC 1.8974 Page 7 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 i) Cold-rolled strip and sheet with higher yield point for cold working made from phosphorus-alloy steels SEW 094 Material No. ZstE220P 1.0397 ZstE260P 1.0417 ZstE300P 1.0448 DIN EN 10 292 Material No. H220PD+Z, +ZF 1.0358 H260PD+Z, +ZF 1.0431 H300PD+Z, +ZF 1.0443 j) Strip and sheet from stainless steels (DIN EN 10088-2): e.g. austenitic steels X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 , or ferritic steels X2CrTi12 1.4512 Page 8 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 4.2 Design The following specifications and the notes on design from the DVS 0929 Specification are used as the basis for the production-friendly design of arc-welded sheet-steel joints. 4.2.1 Joint types The weld joint is the area in which the parts are joined by welding. The respective type of joint is determined by the arrangement of the parts with respect to each other (extension, reinforcement, branching) (table 1). Table 1 Joint types (DIN EN 12345) No. Type of joint Position of parts Description 1 Butt joint The parts lie in the same plane and touch against each other end to end 2 Edge joint The parts lie on top of one another in parallel, e.g. in explosive cladding 3 Lap joint The parts lie in parallel on top of one other and overlap. 4 T-joint The parts meet at right angles (T-shaped) 5 Double T-joint Two parts lying in the same plane meet on a third part that lies between them at right angles (forming a double T shape) 6 Bevel joint One part meets the other at an angle. 7 Corner joint The edges of two parts meet each other at an angle of more than 30° (corner) 8 Front joint The edges of two parts meet each other at an angle of between 0 to 30 9 Multiple joint Three or more parts meet each other at any angle 10 Cross joint Two parts, e.g. wires, lie on top of one another in a cross shape Page 9 VW 011 06-1: 2003-05 4.2.2 Seam types The seam type is determined by the ─ type of weld joint ─ type and scope of preparation, e.g. gap optimization (see DIN EN 25817) ─ material ─ welding method. 4.2.2.1 Fillet weld The parts lie in two planes with respect to one another, form a fillet joint and are joined by welding. It is possible to differentiate between a ─ fillet weld (Figure 3 and Figure 5) a double fillet weld (Figure 4) ─ with and without edge preparation Figure 3 - Fillet weld on T-joint Figure 4 - Double fillet weld on T-joint Figure 5 - Fillet weld on bevel joint without edge preparation 4.2.2.2 Square butt seam on butt joint, flanged seam The parts lie in one plane, form a joint and are joined by welding, Figure 6 and Figure 7. Figure 6 - Square butt seam Figure 7 - Flanged seam 4.2.2.3 Fillet weld on lap joint The following fillet weld forms are possible on the lap joint (Figure 8). Variant 1 V
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