热门搜索:

  • /?76
  • 下载费用:20 金币 ?

Welding_Manufacturing_Processes.pdf

关?键?词:
WELDING_MANUFACTURING_PROCESSES
资源描述:
SEROPE KALPAKJIAN Professor of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Illinois Institute ofTechnology.THOMAS W. WOLFF Instructor, Retired, Mechanical Engineering Dept., The City College, TheCity University of New York.RICHARD W. PERKINS Professor of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Manufacturing Engineering,Molding Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5Casting Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Melting and Heat Treating Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cleaning and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Casting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.2 PLASTIC WORKING OF METALSby Rajiv ShivpuriStructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Plastic-Working Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rolling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Shearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bulk Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Equipment for Working Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.3 WELDING AND CUTTINGby Omer W. Blodgett and Duane K. MillerIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arc Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gas Welding and Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Resistance Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Other Welding Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal Cutting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Design of Welded Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Base Metals for Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PROCESSES AND MACHINE TOOLSby Serope Kalpakjian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-51Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-55Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-55Reaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-56Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Gear Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59Planing and Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-60Broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-60Cutting Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61Abrasive Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61Machining and Grinding of Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-65Machining and Grinding of Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-65Other Material Removal Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-65Syracuse University.13.1 FOUNDRY PRACTICE AND EQUIPMENTby Michael K. MadsenExpanded by StaffBasic Steps in Making Sand Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2Molding Processes and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3Molding Equipment and Mechanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-513.4 MATERIAL REMOVALIntroduction . . . . . . . . . .Basic Mechanics of MetalCutting-Tool Materials . .Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . .Machine Tools . . . . . . . .ManufacturingBYMICHAEL K. MADSEN Manager, Industrial Products Engineering, NeenahRAJIV SHIVPURI Professor of Industrial, Welding, and Systems Engineering,University.OMER W. BLODGETT Senior Design Consultant, Lincoln Electric Co.DUANE K. MILLER Welding Design Engineer, Lincoln Electric Co.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-32. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45Section 13ProcessesFoundry Co.Ohio State13.5 SURFACE TEXTURE DESIGNATION, PRODUCTION, ANDCONTROLby Thomas W. WolffDesign Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68Designation Standards, Symbols, and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70Surface Quality versus Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7013.6 WOODCUTTING TOOLS AND MACHINESby Richard W. PerkinsSawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-72Planing and Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74Boring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74Sanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7513-1 K.the dimensions specified on the drawingtion for internal defects may be quitespecified for the casting (see Sec.casting sometimes is used as is, buting which may include heat treatment,(e.g., hot-dip galvanizing), and machining.clude electrodeposited plated metalsrequirements.PATTERNSSince patterns are the forms for thethan the patterns from which itGated patterns incorporate a gating system along with the pattern toand drag portions of the patternor metal plate, and are designedsystems are also usually at-Table 13.1.1Bar iron, rolledBell metalBismuthBrassBronze13-2Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. and/or specifications. Inspec-involved, depending on the quality5.4.). The inspected and acceptedoften it is subject to further process-painting, other surface treatmenteliminate hand cutting.Match-plate patterns have the copemounted on opposite sides of a woodento speed up the molding process. Gating13.1 FOUNDRY PRACTICEby MichaelExpandedREFERENCES: Publications of the American Foundrymen’s Society: ‘‘CastMetals Handbook,’’ Alloy Cast Irons Handbook,’’ ‘‘Copper-base Alloys FoundryPractice,’’ Foundry Sand Handbook.’’ ‘‘Steel Castings Handbook,’’ Steel Found-ers’ Society of America. Current publications of ASM International. Current pub-lications of the suppliers of nonferrous metals relating to the casting of thosemetals; i.e., Aluminum Corp. of America, Reynolds Metal Co., Dow ChemicalCo., INCO Alloys International, Inc., RMI Titanium Co., and Copper Develop-ment Assn. Publications of the International Lead and Zinc Research Organization(ILZRO).BASIC STEPS IN MAKING SAND CASTINGSThe basic steps involved in making sand castings are:1. Patternmaking. Patterns are required to make molds. The mold ismade by packing molding sand around the pattern. The mold is usuallymade in two parts so that the pattern can be withdrawn. In horizontalmolding, the top half is called the cope, and the bottom half is called thedrag. In vertical molding, the leading half of the mold is called the swing,and the back half is called the ram. When the pattern is withdrawn fromthe molding material (sand or other), the imprint of the pattern providesthe cavity when the mold parts are brought together. The mold cavity,together with any internal cores (see below) as required, is ultimatelyfilled with molten metal to form the casting.2. If the casting is to be hollow, additional patterns, referred to ascore boxes, are needed to shape the sand forms, or cores, that are placedin the mold cavity to form the interior surfaces of castings. Thus thevoid between the mold and core eventually becomes the casting.3. Molding is the operation necessary to prepare a mold for receivingthe metal. It consists of ramming sand around the pattern placed in asupport, or flask, removing the pattern, setting cores in place, cutting thefeeding system to direct the metal if this feeding system is not a part ofthe pattern, removing the pattern, and closing the mold.4. Melting and pouring are the processes of preparing molten metal ofthe proper composition and temperature and pouring this into the moldfrom transfer ladles.5. Cleaning is all the operations required to remove the gates andrisers that constitute the feeding system and to remove the adheringsand, scale, and other foreign material that must be removed before thecasting is ready for shipment or other processing. Inspection follows, tocheck for defects in the casting as well as to ensure that the casting hasFinal operations may in-for either cosmetic or operationalcastings, the casting can be no betteris made. Where close tolerances orAverage Linear Shrinkage of Castings1 : 55 Cast iron1 : 65 Gun metal1 : 265 Iron, fine grained1 : 65 Lead1 : 63 Steel castingsAND EQUIPMENTMadsenby Staffsmooth casting finishes are desired, it is particularly important thatpatterns be carefully designed, constructed, and finished.Patterns serve a variety of functions, the more important being (1) toshape the mold cavity to produce castings, (2) to accommodate thecharacteristics of the metal cast, (3) to provide accurate dimensions,(4) to provide a means of getting liquid metal into the mold (gatingsystem), and (5) to provide a means to support cores.Usual allowances built into the pattern to ensure dimensional accu-racy include the following: (1) Draft, the taper on the vertical walls ofthe casting which is necessary to extract the pattern from the moldwithout disturbing the mold walls. (2) Shrinkage allowance, a correctionto compensate for the solidification shrinkage of the metal and its con-traction during cooling. These allowances vary with the type of metaland size of casting. Typical allowances for cast iron are1?10 to5?32 in/ft;for steel,1?8 to1?4 in/ft; and for aluminum,1?16 to5?32 in/ft. A designershould consult appropriate references (AFS, ‘‘Cast Metals Handbook’’;ASM, ‘‘Casting Design Handbook’’; ‘‘Design of Ferrous Castings’’) orthe foundry. These allowances also include a size tolerance for theprocess so that the casting is dimensionally correct. (See also Secs. 6.1,6.3, and 6.4.) Table 13.1.1 lists additional data for some commonly castmetals. (3) Machine finish allowance is necessary if machining operationsare to be used so that stock is provided for machining. Tabulated dataare available in the references cited for shrinkage allowances. (4) If acasting is prone to distortion, a pattern may be intentionally distorted tocompensate. This is a distortion allowance.Patterns vary in complexity, depending on the size and number ofcastings required. Loose patterns are single prototypes of the casting andare used only when a few castings are needed. They are usually con-structed of wood, but metal, plaster, plastics, urethanes, or other suitablematerial may be used. With advancements in solids modeling utilizingcomputers, CAD/CAM systems, and laser technology, rapid prototyp-ing is possible and lends itself to the manufacture of protype patternsfrom a number of materials, including dense wax paper, or via stereo-lithographic processes wherein a laser-actuated polymerized plastic be-comes the actual pattern or a prototype for a pattern or a series ofpatterns. The gating system for feeding the casting is cut into the sandby hand. Some loose patterns may be split into two parts to facilitatemolding.tached. These patterns are generally used with some type of moldingmachine and are recommended where a large number of castings arerequired.For fairly large castings or where an increase in production rate isdesired, the patterns can be mounted on separate pattern plates, whichare referred to as cope- and drag-pattern plates. They are utilized inhorizontal or vertical machines. In horizontal molding machines, thepattern plates may be used on separate machines by different workers,1 : 96 Steel, puddled 1 : 721 : 134 Steel, wrought 1 : 641 : 72 Tin 1 : 1281 : 92 Zinc, cast 1 : 6241 : 50 8 Cu 1 1 Sn (by weight) 1 : 13MOLDING PROCESSES AND MATERIALS 13-3and then combined into completed molds on the molding floor prior topouring. In vertical machines, the pattern plates are used on the samemachine, with the flaskless mold portions pushed out one behind theother. Vertical machines result in faster production rates and provide aneconomic edge in overall casting costs.Special Patterns and Devices For extremely large castings, skele-ton patterns may be employed. Large molds of a symmetric nature maybe made for forming the sand mold by sweeps, which provide the con-tour of the casting through the movement of a template around an axis.Follow b
? 汽车智库所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

关于本文
本文标题:Welding_Manufacturing_Processes.pdf
链接地址:http://www.autoekb.com/p-9143.html
关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

copyright@ 2008-2018 mywenku网站版权所有
经营许可证编号:京ICP备12026657号-3?

收起
展开