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Automobile chassis-basic(底盘基础培训) 中英文.pdf

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AUTOMOBILE CHASSIS BASIC 底盘 基础 培训 中英文
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Summary: ? Chapter 1 Automobile basic concept 1. Automobile components 2. Car body 3. Engine the burning fuel generates heat which causes the gas inside the cylinder to increase its pressure and supply power to rotate a shaft connected to the power train. The gearbox is suitable for driving resistance, changing the drive wheels to reverse and speed. Make auto forward or back. In the neutral gear, interrupting power delivery, dividing the running engine from vehicle movement . 发 动 机 作为 动力设 备 ,常 见的类 型是内燃 机 ,其 原理是 通过发 动机 缸内的液 体燃料 燃烧而 产生能 量 。 发动机可 分为两 类 :汽 油机 ( 点燃 式)和柴 油机 ( 压燃式 ),都 属于 热力发动 机 。燃 料燃烧 产生热 量使 缸内气压 上升 , 产生的 能量驱 动轴 旋转,并 传递给 动力传 动系 。 变 速 箱 的作 用是适 合汽车 行驶阻 力变化, 改变驱 动轮扭 转和转 速 。 使汽车前 进或倒 退 。空 档时 , 中断 动力传递 ,使发 动机的 运转与 车辆 的运动相 脱离 。Top and side view of a typical manual transmission, in this case a Ford “Toploader“, used in cars with typical external gear shifter. 上图是一种典型的手动变速器的顶视 图 和侧视图,其外 部换挡器是福特一款典型的“月牙形 ” 手动 换挡器 。 driveshaft Final drive // Differential Driving axles Final drive is inside the drive axle. The drive axle consists of axle housing,final drive, differential and half axle. Final drive's main role is to output the transmission power to further reduce the speed, increase the torque and change the direction of rotation, and then passed to the drive wheels, to gain enough traction and appropriate car speed. 汽车主减速器位于驱动桥内。 驱动桥主要由桥壳 、主减速器、 差速器和半轴组成。 主减速器的主要作用是将变速器输出的动 力进一步降低转速, 增大转矩,并 改变旋转方向,然后传递给 驱动轮, 以获得足够的汽车牵引力和适当的车速。? Power train system: conveys the drive to the wheels 传动 系统: 传输动力到车轮 ? Steering system: controls the direction of movement 转向系统: 控制车辆运动 方向 ? Suspension system : absorbs the road shocks 悬 架系统: 吸收来自路面的冲击 ? Braking system: slows down the vehicle 制 动系统: 使 车辆减速或停止 Chapter 2 Chassis basic concept 1. Power train system 1. Clutch 离合器 2. Gearbox 变速器 3. universial joints 万向节 4. drive axle 驱动桥 5. Differential 差速器 6. half axle 半 轴 7. final drive 主 减 速 器 8. drive shaft 传 动 轴1. Power train system 汽车发动机所发出的动力靠传动系传递到驱动车轮 。传动系 具有减速 、变速、倒车、中断动力、轮间差速和轴间差速等动能 , 与发动机配合工作 ,能保证汽车在个各种工况条件下的正常行驶 , 并具有良好的动力性和经济性 。 Vehicle’s power which is produced by engine transmits to the drive wheels by power train system. The power train system is provided with reducing the speed, variable speed, backing up, break the engine power, differential between the wheels, and between axles . Working with engine ,it can guarantee a car in normal driving under various working conditions, and has good power performance and fuel economy. The direction motion of vehicle is controlled by a steering system. A basic steering system has 3 main parts: steering control mechanism, steering gear , steering linkage mechanism which connecting wheels and steering gear. When the driver turns the steering wheel, a shaft from the steering column turns the steering gear. The steering gear moves tie-rods that connect to the front wheels. The tie-rods move the front wheels to turn the vehicle right or left. 转向系控制汽车行驶方向 ,一般由三部分组成:转向操纵机构 (由方向盘、 转 向 轴 、 转向管柱、万向节、转向传动轴等构成)、转向器、连接车轮和 转 向 器 的转向传动机构 。 当驾驶员转动方向盘时,转向柱内的轴带动转向 器 运 动 ,然后通过转向传动机构来转动车轮,从而使得汽车向左或向右行 驶 。 2. Steerin system2. Steerin system 1. Steering wheel 方 向 盘 2. Steering shaft 转 向 轴 3. Knuckle 转 向 节 4. driving wheel 转 向 轮 5. Steering arm 转 向 节 臂 6. Tie-rod 转 向 横 拉 杆 7. Steering damper 转 向 减 震 器 8. Steering gear 转 向 器According to different power source of external auxiliary system, currently there are two kinds of power-assisted steering system: HPS (HydraulicPowerSteering) and EPS (ElectricPowerSteering). 转向系统根据根据产生外部辅助力的动力来源不同,可以再分为液压 助力转向系统 、电液助力转向系统及电动助力转向系统 。其中常用的 助力系统是液压及电动助力转向系统 。 2. Steerin system pinion and rack front stabilizer bar power steering pump oil tank universal joint electromotor steering shaft Steering rack Steering pinion HPS EPS整 个 悬 架系统的作用是隔离来自路面的冲 击 和 振 动对车身的影响 ,防止传递给乘员 和 货 物 。另外不论路面如何,悬架系统都 应 该 保 持轮胎和路面接触 。悬架系统的基 本 组 成 包括弹性元件 、车桥、减震器、杆 系 ( 臂 、杆)和球副组成的导向机构。 The purpose of the complete suspension system is to isolate the vehicle body from road shocks and vibrations, which will otherwise be transferred to the passengers and load. It must also keep the tires in contact with the road regardless of road surface. A basic suspension system consists of springs, axles, shock absorbers, arms, rods and ball joints. 3. Suspension systemSuspension system roles: ? buffering: connecting car body and wheels,supporting wheel/knuckle with poper rigidity, making the tires contact road while it moving up and down. ? guiding: guarantee steering controlling ,improving vechile’s handling performance. ? shock absorption: absorbing if rear-wheel being locked, it will result in sideslip or even car drift . ABS is anti-lock brake system, by adjusting brake pressure of wheel, the wheels while braking is always in a State of not locking. ? Improving stability ? gaurantee steer ability ? gaurantee shorter stopping distance ABS 制动防抱死系统是一种主动安全装置 。当制动压力过大时,车轮会抱 死,当前轮抱死时汽车将失去转向能力;若后轮抱死,则会导致车辆产生 侧滑 ,甚至出现甩尾现象。ABS 是制动防抱死系统,通过不断的调节车轮 的制动压力,使车轮在制动时始终处于不被抱死的状态。 ? 提高汽车稳定性 ? 保证汽车转向性 ? 保证最短制动距离
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