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Handbook of Diesel Engines.pdf

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HANDBOOK OF DIESEL ENGINES
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Klaus Mollenhauer C1 Helmut TschoekeHandbook of Diesel EnginesKlaus Mollenhauer C1 Helmut TschoekeHandbook of DieselEnginesWith 584 Figures and 86 Tables13EditorsProf. Dr.-Ing. Klaus MollenhauerOrber Str. 2514193 BerlinGermanyKlamoll@aol.comProf. Dr.-Ing. Helmut TschoekeOtto von Guericke University MagdeburgInstitute of Mobile SystemsUniversita¨tsplatz 239106 MagdeburgGermanyhelmut.tschoeke@ovgu.deTranslatorKrister G. E. JohnsonOtto-von-Guericke-Strass 56 b39104 MagdeburgGermanyISBN 978-3-540-89082-9 e-ISBN 978-3-540-89083-6DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-89083-6Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New YorkLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2010924045#Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights oftranslation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in databanks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9,1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under theGerman Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specificstatement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.Cover design: WMXDesign GmbH, HeidelbergPrinted on acid-free paperSpringer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)PrefaceThis machine is destined to completely revolutionizeengine engineering and replace everything that exists.(From Rudolf Diesel’s letter of October 2, 1892 to thepublisher Julius Springer.)Although Diesel’s stated goal has never been fullyachievable of course, the diesel engine indeed revolu-tionized drive systems. This handbook documents thecurrent state of diesel engine engineering and technol-ogy. The impetus to publish a Handbook of DieselEngines grew out of ruminations on Rudolf Diesel’stransformation of his idea for a rational heat engineinto reality more than 100 years ago. Once the patentwas filed in 1892 and work on his engine commencedthefollowingyear,RudolfDieselwaitedanother4yearsuntil the Association of German Engineers providedhim a platform to present his engine to the public at itsconvention in Kassel on June 16, 1897. The enginecame to bear the name of its ingenious inventor soonthereafter.The editors and publisher intend this English edi-tion of the handbook to furnish readers outside Ger-man-speaking regions a scholarly and practical presen-tation of the current state of the diesel engine and itslarge range of applications. The handbook has not onlybeen conceived for diesel experts but also ‘‘diesel lay-persons’’ with prior knowledge of engineering or atleast an interest in technology. Furthermore, it isintended to benefit students desiring a firsthandcomprehensive and sound overview of diesel engineengineering and technology and its state ofdevelopment.These aims are reflected in the book’s five-partstructure. Part I provides a brief history of the dieselengine followed by sections on the fundamentals,including supercharging systems, diesel engine com-bustion, fuels and modern injection systems. Parts II–IVtreattheloadingand designofselectedcomponents,diesel engine operation, the pollution this causes andthe increasingly important measures to reduce it. PartV presents the entire range of enginesfrom small singlecylinder diesel engine up through large low speed two-stroke diesel engines. An appendix lists the mostimportant standards and regulations for diesel engines.Further development of diesel engines as economiz-ing, clean, powerful and convenient drives for road andnonroad use has proceeded quite dynamically in thelast twenty years in particular. In light of limited oilreserves and the discussion of predicted climatechange, development work continues to concentrateon reducing fuel consumption and utilizing alternativefuels while keeping exhaust as clean as possible as wellas further increasing diesel engine power density andenhancing operating performance. Development isoriented toward the basic legal conditions, customerdemands and, not least, competition with gasolineengines, which are still considered the benchmark carengine in many sectors.The topics tobetreated were weighed with allthis inmind: In addition to engine internal measures thatreduce exhaust emissions with the aid of new combus-tion systems and new fuels, the section on Exhaust GasAftertreatmentdeservesparticularmention.The oxida-tion catalytic converters introduced in the car sector asstandard in the 1990s will soon no longer meet themounting requirements for air hygiene; particulate fil-tersandnitrogenoxidereductionsystems,e.g.SCRandstorage catalysts, have become standard.New combustion systems with a larger share ofpremixed, homogeneous combustion than normaldiffusion combustion are just as much the subject ofthis handbook as the refinement of supercharging toenhance the power output, increase the peak cylinderpressure and thus limit load as the brake mean effec-tive pressure increases. Quickly emerging as the opti-mal injection system when the car sector switchedfrom indirect to direct injection at the end of the1990s, the common rail system also came to be used– initially only experimentally – for larger dieselengines at the start of the new millennium. Thecommon rail system is now standard in diesel enginesVof virtually every size. Hence, reflecting current butby far not yet finalized development, this handbooktreats the different designs, e.g. with solenoid valve-controlled or piezo-actuated injectors, in detail.Ample space has accordingly also been given to elec-tronics with its diverse options to control processes inthe engine.To be able meet the expectations and demandsconnected with a Handbook of Diesel Engines, werelied as much on the collaboration of outstandingengineers from the engine industry as on the researchfindings of professors at universities of applied sciencesand universities. After all, a particularly close connec-tion has existed between theory and practice, betweenacademia and industry, in engine research since Die-sel’s day, his invention itself being based on the engi-neering of his day.Thanks to the work of many generations of engi-neers, scientists, researchers and professors, the dieselengine continues to be the most cost effective internalcombustion engine and has evolved into an advancedhigh-tech product.We would like to thank all the authors – whetherexperts working in industry where the utmost dedica-tion is demanded or our colleagues in academia wherethe days of creative leisure have long since become athing of the past – for their collaboration, their readyacceptance of our ideas and the many fruitful discus-sions. We would also like to extend our gratitude to thecompanies that allowed their employees to work on theside, supported the compilation of texts and masterillustrations and provided material. Acknowledgementis also due the many helpers at companies and insti-tutes for their contributions without which such anextensive book manuscript could never have beenproduced.Particularly special thanks go to the Diesel SystemsDivision at Robert Bosch GmbH for the technical andfinancial support, which made it possible to completethis extensive work in the first place.Despite the sometimes hectic pace and considerableadditional work, the editors tremendously enjoyedtheir collaboration with the authors, the publisher andall the other collaborators.Berlin, Germany,Magdeburg, GermanySeptember 2009Klaus MollenhauerHelmut TschoekeMy engine continues to make great advances.... (From Rudolf Diesel’s letter of July 3, 1895 to his wife.)VI PrefaceContentsContributors .....................IXPart I The Diesel Engine Cycle ....11 History and Fundamental Principles of theDiesel Engine (Klaus Mollenhauer andKlaus Schreiner) ................ 31.1 The History of the Diesel Engine ...... 31.2 Fundamentals of Engine Engineering .... 71.3 Combustion Cycle Simulation .......18Literature ...................292 Gas Exchange and Supercharging (Helmut Pucher) ..312.1 Gas Exchange ...............312.2 Diesel Engine Supercharging ........382.3 Programmed Gas ExchangeSimulation ................56Literature ...................593 Diesel Engine Combustion (Klaus B. Binder) .....613.1 Mixture Formation and Combustion ....613.2 Design Features ..............693.3 Alternative Combustion Processes ......733.4 Process Simulation of Injection Characteristicand Rate of Heat Release ..........74Literature ...................754 Fuels (Gerd Hagenow, Klaus Reders, Hanns-ErhardHeinze, Wolfgang Steiger, Detlef Zigan, and DirkMooser) ....................774.1 Automotive Diesel Fuels ..........774.2 Alternative Fuels .............944.3 Operation of Marine and StationaryEngines with Heavy Fuel Oil .......1034.4 Fuel Gases and Gas Engines .......114Literature .................. 1245 Fuel Injection Systems (Walter Egler, Rolf Ju¨rgenGiersch, Friedrich Boecking, Ju¨rgen Hammer,Jaroslav Hlousek, Patrick Mattes, Ulrich Projahn,Winfried Urner, and Bj¨orn Janetzky) ...... 1275.1 Injection Hydraulics ...........1275.2 Injection Nozzles and Nozzle Holders . . . 1295.3 Injection Systems ............1375.4 Injection System Metrology ........170Literature .................. 173Further Literature .............. 173Further Literature on Section 5.2 ........ 1746 Fuel Injection System Control Systems (Ulrich Projahn,Helmut Randoll, Erich Biermann, J¨org Bru¨ckner,Karsten Funk, Thomas Ku¨ttner, Walter Lehle, andJoachim Zuern) ............... 1756.1 Mechanical Control ...........1756.2 Electronic Control ............1766.3 Sensors .................1846.4 Diagnostics ...............1866.5 Application Engineering .........189Literature .................. 191Further Literature .............. 191Part II Diesel Engine Engineering ..1937 Engine Component Loading (Dietmar Pinkernell andMichael Bargende) .............. 1957.1 Mechanical and Thermal Loadingof Components .............1957.2 Heat Transfer and Thermal Loadsin Engines ...............202Literature .................. 217Further Literature .............. 2198 Crankshaft Assembly Design, Mechanicsand Loading (Eduard K¨ohler, Eckhart Schopf, andUwe Mohr) ................. 2218.1 Designs and Mechanical Properties ofCrankshaft Assemblies ..........2218.2 Crankshaft Assembly Loading ......2288.3 Balancing of Crankshaft Assembly Masses . 2368.4 Torsional Crankshaft AssemblyVibrations ...............2508.5 Bearings and Bearing Materials ......2598.6 Piston, Piston Rings and Piston Pins ....270Literature .................. 287Further Literature .............. 290VII9 Engine Cooling (Klaus Mollenhauer andJochen Eitel) ................. 2919.1 Internal Engine Cooling .........2919.2 External Engine Cooling Systems .....309Literature .................. 33610 Materials and Their Selection (Johannes Betz) .... 33910.1 The Importance of Materials for DieselEngines ................33910.2 Technical Materials for Engine Components . 33910.3 Factors for Material Selection ......34810.4 Service Life Concepts and Material Data . . . 34810.5 Service Life Enhancing Processes .....34910.6 Trends in Development .........352Literature .................. 354Further Literature .............. 355Part III Diesel Engine Operation ..35711 Lubricants and the Lubrication System(Hubert Schwarze) .............. 35911.1 Lubricants ...............35911.2 Lubrication Systems ..........370Literature .................. 37612 Start and Ignition Assist Systems (Wolfgang Dresslerand Stephan Ernst) .............. 37712.1 Conditions for the Auto-Ignition of Fuel . 37712.2 Fuel Ignition Aids ...........37812.3 Start and Ignition Assist Systems .....37912.4 Cold Start, Cold Running Performanceand Cold Running Emissions for Cars . . 38312.5 Conclusion ..............386Literature .................. 386Further Literature .............. 38613 Intake and Exhaust Systems (Oswald Parr,Jan Kru¨ger, and Leonhard Vilser) ....... 38713.1 Air Cleaners ..............38713.2 Exhaust Systems ............393Literature .................. 398Further Literature .............. 39914 Exhaust Heat Recovery (Franz Hirschbichler) .... 40114.1 Basics of Waste Heat Recovery ......40114.2 Options of Waste Heat Recovery .....404Literature .................. 413Part IV Environmental Pollutionby Diesel Engines .....41515 Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions (Helmut Tschoeke,Andreas Graf, Ju¨rgen Stein, Michael Kru¨ger, JohannesSchaller, Norbert Breuer, Kurt Engeljehringer,and Wolfgang Schindler) ........... 41715.1 General Background ..........41715.2 Emission Control Legislation ......42615.3 Pollutants and Their Production .....44315.4 In-Engine Measures for PollutantReduction ...............44915.5 Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment .......45515.6 Emissions Testing ...........469Literature .................. 483Further Literature .............. 48516 Diesel Engine Noise Emission (Bruno M. Spessertand Hans A. Kochanowski) .......... 48716.1 Fundamentals of Acoustics .......48716.2 Development of Engine NoiseEmission ...............48716.3 Engine Surface Noise ..........48916.4 Aerodynamic Engine Noises .......49816.5 Noise Reduction by Encapsulation ....49916.6 Engine Soundproofing .........502Literature .................. 502Part V Implemented DieselEngines .........50517 Vehicle Diesel Engines (Fritz Steinparzer, KlausBlumensaat, Georg Paehr, Wolfgang Held, andChristoph Teetz) ................50717.1 Diesel Engines for Passenger Cars ....50717.2 Diesel Engines for Light DutyCommercial Vehicles ..........52117.3 Diesel Engines for Heavy Duty CommercialVehicles and Buses ...........52817.4 High Speed High PerformanceDiesel Engines .............544Literature .................. 556Further Literature .............. 55718 Industrial and Marine Engines (Gu¨nter Kampichler,Heiner Bu¨lte, Franz Koch, and Klaus Heim) ... 55918.1 Small Single Cylinder DieselEngines ................55918.2 Stationary and Industrial Engines ....56818.3 Medium Speed Four-StrokeDiesel Engines .............57618.4 Two-Stroke Low SpeedDiesel Engines .............592Literature .................. 607Standards and Guidelines for Internal Combustion Engines . 609Index ...................... 621VIII ContentsContributorsMichael Bargende, Prof. Dr.-Ing., Universita¨t Stuttgart,Stuttgart, Germany, michael.bargende@ivk.uni-stuttgart.deJohannes Betz, MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH,Friedrichshafen, Germany, johannes.betz@mtu-online.comErich Biermann, Dr.-Ing., Robert Bosch GmbH, DieselSystems, Stuttgart, Germany,erich.biermann@de.bosch.comKlaus B. Binder, Prof. Dr.-Ing., Deizisau, Germany,klaus.b.binder@t-online.deKlaus Blumensaat, Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany,klaus.blumensaat@volkswa
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