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Wave_training_notes.pdf

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WAVE_TRAINING_NOTES
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? Ricardo plc 2007 1 Basic WAVE Training Basic WAVE Training Single Cylinder Model Single Cylinder Model2 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Training Overview Basic WAVE training is given over 2 days and covers the basic tutorials found in the WAVE help system. Over the next 2 Days we are going to attempt to quickly cover as much of the full tutorial as possible. All tutorials are included in the WAVE help. Basic training will cover – Help system – Data Sheet – Simple model build – Viewing Results in WavePost3 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Example models All of the tutorial examples are provided as part of the WAVE installation. It is a good idea to make copies of these and store them in your own working directory. Locate example models – C:\Program Files\Ricardo\Wave\7.0\examples\engine\ Copy TUT_si to a new location. Files are write protected.4 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Launching WaveBuild WaveBuild and WaveBuild3D launch the same application WaveBuild3D takes a 3D license.5 ? Ricardo plc 2007 WaveBuild Help All Tutorials are contained within the help These should be used as reference rather than this presentation. It is a very good idea to familiarise yourself with the layout. – Wave Knowledge Centre ? All about WAVE including guides, best practice and tutorials – Help ? Panel help – Reference Library ? User Manuals Theory ? Tables (Wave output) – Technical Support ? Platform policy etc.6 ? Ricardo plc 2007 WaveBuild Canvas Menu Tools Model building Elements Message Window Launch Post Processors Run Constants Panel Case Number/ Navigation Components Main Modelling Canvas Favourite Editors (Notepad, Excel, etc..) Add/Remove Case Run/Skip Case7 ? Ricardo plc 2007 General Parameters General Parameters Before starting the construction of the WAVE model the general parameters block should first be completed, it defines the units, fuel and time step information Data can be referenced in a text form and then given a value in simulation - constants - table Fuel File set to INDOLENE8 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Single Cylinder Model Single Cylinder Model Construct the simple engine model shown using the Element Tree Ambient Orifices Engine Cylinder The ducts must be added last and will appear in yellow to begin with – this means their geometry has not been defined yet All Elements can be renamed from their default names to ‘meaningful’ ones Ducts All Elements added to canvas by dragging with the left mouse button9 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Canvas Manipulation Canvas Manipulation Left mouse click = Select Left mouse double click = Open Left mouse click and drag = Multiple select Middle mouse click and hold = Move (both elements and canvas) Middle mouse click and scroll = Zoom Right mouse click = Menu Right mouse click and drag = Zoom window Right mouse click -> Auto zoom canvas = Auto zoom canvas10 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Geometry Definition Geometry Definition Double Click on the ducts and define:- Dimensions Coefficients Initial Conditions of the Gas The restriction on the junction connecting the ducts can be modified by double clicking on the icon11 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Geometry Definition Geometry Definition Discretization 35mm 0.45 * Bore Discretization 40mm 0.55 * Bore For ports set heat transfer to 1.5 and friction to 012 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Ambient Conditions Ambient Conditions Double click on the ambient junctions to define the orifice size and gas temperatures and pressures (the same ambients exist for intake and exhaust) The fluid composition should be made entirely of air (set to 1.0).13 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Engine Data Engine Data Select model from the tool bar, then engine. This displays the input blocks that define the operation of the engine In this example we will only have to enter data into:- Geometry, Operating Parameters, Heat Transfer, Combustion In the operating parameters type {SPEED} and enter 6000 in simulation - constants - table14 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Engine Data Engine Data Combustion thb50 8.0 bdur 31 wexp 2.0 burnfrac 1.0 Heat transfer IVO 1.0 Heat transfer IVC 1.0 Piston top SA 1.0 Cyl head SA 1.6 Temperatures Piston top 520 K Cyl head 520 K Cyl liner 400 K swirl ratio 0 Number of cylinders 1 (spark ignition) Number of strokes 4 Bore 78.1mm Stroke 82mm Con Rod Length 150mm Piston pin offset 0.0 Compression ratio 10 clearance height 2 Friction ACF 0.35 BCF 0.005 CCF 400 QCF 0.2 See WKC for information on friction15 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Valve Data Valve Data To add valve details to the engine select model then valves from the tool bar Select add valve, and define its type as LIFT. To define the lift and flow coefficients select edit, see following slide The duct attachments for each valve are defined by double clicking on the cylinder16 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Valve Data Valve Data Intake Exhaust Diameter 35mm 28mm Lift Profile SI1INT tag SI1EXH tag Anchors Cycle 330° 105° Profile 0.0 0.0 Multipliers Duration 1.0 1.0 Lift 1.414 1.0 Valve Parameters Lash 0.0 0.0 Rocker ratio 1.0 1.0 Angle type Crank Crank Evaluation On On Coefficient Profile CFTYP tag CFTYP tag17 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Valve Data Valve Data For this exercise reference data from the tag files:- Intake: SI1INT (lift) CFTYP (coeff)Exh: SI1EXH (lift) CFTYP (coeff) Enter in manually, or reference an external/tag file18 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Adding Injectors Adding Injectors Port injectors are defined by right clicking on the required duct and selecting edit injectors This example uses port injection Select ‘Edit Duct Injection Types’ to define injection type, start of injection, injection profile, and fuel composition: Liquid Fuel 1.0 Evaporated Liquid Fraction 0.3 Fuel Temperature 330K Pressing ‘Edit’ allows setting of Fuelling ratios or rates for each injector Set A_F as 14.719 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Requesting Plots Requesting Plots Requesting plots is done by selecting with the right mouse button the duct or volume that you want to plot data from, and then selecting edit plots Use the options shown opposite to add or modify plot types20 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Single Cylinder Model Single Cylinder Model Injector Identifier Plot Identifier Pressure (Default locations) Pressure (all locations) Log-Log P-V plot Engine plot 701 –Torque (Simulation-> Time Plot)21 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Requesting Plots Requesting Plots 1. Select the relevant dataset group from the dropdown list 2. Select the relevant dataset and request by hitting the ‘Add’ button or request all data sets by hitting ‘Add all Datasets’ Instead of defining each single time plot, the user also has the option to request whole data sets. This will result in a multitude of time plots available in WAVEPOST. To select a dataset, click on: Simulation Post Processing Output This will open the Postprocessing Output Panel. It does, however lead to larger files being created.22 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Requesting Animations Requesting Animations To request an animation data set click on ‘Simulation’ ‘Output and Plotting’. This will open the ‘Output and Plotting Panel’ (see right). To request animation data, simply tick the ‘Generate Animation Data’ Box and hit ‘OK’. You can request partial data sets using the ‘Summary’ drop down menu. The summary data log frequency is set by selecting ‘CASE’ or ‘CYCLE’ from the ‘Frequency’ drop down menu. This panel is also used to request other data sets like noise output data, etc WavePost can use time-based data to animate the network with colour contours of basic datasets. These animations can be viewed in WavePost and then saved as MPEG files for use in presentations and reports. 23 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Running WAVE Running WAVE Before WAVE can be started an input check should be completed - select run - input check To actually run the WAVE model select run - screen mode The shortcut buttons can be used to do this also. When either of the above are selected a DOS/UNIX screen will appear displaying the calculation status24 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Running WAVE Running WAVE See SI Tutorial, Phase 2 - The WAVE Solver and Time Plots in WavePost Input check initialises model and checks geometry – does everything except solve Messages I*** = Information W*** = Warning F*** = Failure25 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Running WAVE Running WAVE Wave File types – *.wvm = Model File (xml) – *.out = Output File (everything printed to screen + results summary report – *.wvd = Wave data (time based data, requested plots,datasets) – *.sum = summary data (1 value per parameter per case) – *.wps = WavePost session ( plot information, references sum and wvd files – *.wpt = Wavepost template (user created) – *.rp = Rplot file (superseded by wps) – *.wcm = Wave Component file (WB3D, network, mesher) – *.bak = backup of wvm file prior to last save26 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Running WAVE (output) Running WAVE (output) Traditionally WAVE runs were always steady state multi-case runs, where a single speed was run at each case. Contained in the wvd file is time varying data. This is usually the last (converged) cycle’s worth of data.* If no plots are requested no wvd file is written. The sum file usually contains a single averaged value for the last cycle in each case.* Time plots plotted from the wvd file. Sweep plots plotted from the sum file. Datasets are used to enable specific plot data to be written to the wvd file for every sub volume in the model. This gives increased post processing flexibility but models are slower to run and create bigger results files27 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Running WAVE (output) Running WAVE (output) Hints for plotting for transient running – Possible to plot from sensors – sensor data is automatically written to sum file and can be added to the wvd file by adding the sensor dataset. – Continuous sensor data available. – It is possible to write summary data at the end of every cycle in rather than every case. – Plot storage interval allow control of frequency at which the *wvd file is written to.? Ricardo plc 2007 28 WAVEPOST functionality WAVEPOST functionality Wave has its own post processor called WavePost Menu File and Case Tree Network view Plot Tree ‘right click’ on model component to request plots or data tables? Ricardo plc 2007 29 WAVEPOST functionality WAVEPOST functionality The plot appearance is modified by editing the relevant panel, which appear when clicking on the different plot elements.30 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Post Processing Post Processing Requested plots automatically shown in plot tree. Create time plots by – Add Menu – Right click on time plot folder in Plot Tree – Right click on component in network view Time plots can only be created if data has been written to wvd file Create sweep plots plots by – Add Menu – Right click on Sweep plot folder in Plot Tree – Right click on component in network view Sweep plots can only be created if you have run more than two cases. Otherwise see out file.31 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Post Processing Post Processing Create Spatial plots by – Add Menu – Right click on Spatial plot folder in Plot Tree – Highlight multiple component in network view and right click Spatial plots can be animated Spatial plots can only be created if data has been written to wvd file. Reopen plot by clicking on it in Plot Tree Use page up/down to skip through plots You can add addition data to existing plots via the Add menu in the plot window You can copy and paste curves between plots 32 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Post Processing Post Processing Changing Modes – Network = standard view – Animation allows you to view and animate wvd data via a 2D display of the network using a colour scale – Cycle average allows you to view averaged datadata via a 2D display of the network using a colour scale – Frequency allow you to view variable values at different frequencies – Use the tools menu to change variable, scale etc33 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Post Processing Post Processing Saving – *.wps file is created by hitting save. This references wvd and sum files – *.wpt file is created by hitting save as template. Template saves details of all requested plots but references no results files. Results sets can be added to existing wavepost sessions by hitting the add button in the File and Case tree. Plots are automatically updated with newly loaded data if it is present in wvd file. Multiple result sets can be added to a newly loaded template for easy and organised viewing of results. Reports can be created via the Plot manager in the tools menu. Add any existing plot to your Report Add titles and customise layouts Plots edited in original plot window not in Plot Manager.34 ? Ricardo plc 2007 Adding Cases Adding Cases At this stage the number of extra cases has not been defined, this is set in the Constants Panel. To add a case simply click ‘+’ Type the values for each case in the relevant table fields. An entry for each constant name should be added (i.e. speed, A_F, ncyc).? Ricardo plc 2007 35 Four Cylinder Model Four Cylinder Model? Ricardo plc 2007 36 Four Cylinder Model Four Cylinder Model The purpose of this exercise is to transform the single cylinder model into an 8 valve four cylinder engine, similar to the one shown below Snorkel Air cleaner Throttle Inlet Manifold Exhaust Manifold Catalyst Intermediate Concentric Silencer Rear WB3D Silencer? Ricardo plc 2007 37 Geometry Modifications Geometry Modifications Separate the ambients Highlight the model, copy and paste the geometry to create four cylinders? Ricardo plc 2007 38 Intake and Exhaust Geometry Modifications Intake and Exhaust Geometry Modifications? Ricardo plc 2007 39 Snorkel and Zip Tube Snorkel and Zip Tube Firstly, create a flow network as shown to represent the snorkel, zip tube and air cleaner. Fill in the parameters for the snorkel and zip tube – we will deal with the complex Y-junctions for the air cleaner in a minute…? Ricardo plc 2007 40 Snorkel and Zip Tube Snorkel and Zip Tube Observe the ‘Taper Angle’ Field turning yellow as warning, which in this instance is no problem – please refer to ‘Special Topics – Modeling Tapered Ducts’ in the WAVE Knowledge Centre? Ricardo plc 2007 41 Air Filter and Throttle Air Filter and Throttle Volume = 2 litres Volume = 6 litres 250mm 150mm 100mm ? 60mm ? 200mm ? 50mm length 150mm THROTTLE ( ? 50mm, shaft ? 10mm) Air filter schematic DIAB Duct 20 & 21 Air filter Y-junction DELX? Ricardo plc 2007 42 Air Filter and Throttle Air Filter and Throttle? Ricardo plc 2007 43 Air Filter and Throttle Air Filter and Throttle DUCT A DUCT B DIAB(A) DIAB(B) DUCT A DUCT B DELX(A) DELX(B)? Ricardo plc 2007 44 Air Filter and Throttle Air Filter and Throttle Massless Duct? Ricardo plc 2007 45 Air Filter and Throttle Air Fi
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