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柴油机培训CY4D115_Diesel_engine_training 中英版.pdf

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柴油机 培训 CY4D115_DIESEL_ENGINE_TRAINING 中英版
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CY4D115-C3 Diesel engine general view 4D115-C3型柴油机 采用德国Bosch公司的电控高压共轨技术研制 而成的排放达欧Ⅲ的环保机型,并具有欧Ⅳ、欧Ⅴ的上升平台。 4D115-C3 environmental protection type diesel engine, adopting German Bosch electronic control high pressure common rail technology ,with the emission level of Euro III and has the platform being upgraded into Euro IV and Euro V.CY4D115-C3 Diesel engine general viewCY4D115-C3 Diesel engine general viewCY4D115-C3 Diesel engine general viewCY4D115-C3 BOSCH电控共轨系统JMC N900 light-duty truck (DCD CY4D115-C3 diesel engine ) ? CY4D115-C3 diesel engine application (配装朝柴CY4D115-C3发动机 JMC N900 LIGHT DUTY TRUCKS ) ? 4D115-C3 diesel engine application ? CY4D115-C3 diesel engine application (JAC HFC1083) ? JAC HFC1083 light-duty trucksCY4D115-C3 DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE INDEX Diesel engine type 4D115-C3 Rated power kW 115 Rated speed r/min 2600 Max. torque N.m 450 Max. torque speed r/min 1400-1600 Min specific fuel consumption at full load g/(kW.h) 210 Oil and fuel consumption rate % ≤0.3 Performance characteristic smoke FSN ≤2.0 Emission Euro IIICY4D115-C3 Diesel engine technical specification Engine model 4D115-C3 type Vertical 、4-stroke 、electronic control common rail system Inspiration type Turbo charged, air to air inter- cooling Cylinder No.s -Bore X Stroke 4-110×125mm Cylinder liner Thin wall dry type Combustion chamber type Direct injection round combustion chamber Piston displacement 4.752 L Compression ratio 17.5:1 Firing order 1-3-4-2 Rotation direction (Viewed from flywheel end ) Counter-clock wiseCY4D115-C3 Diesel engine technical specification Start mode :Electrical start Stop mode : Fuel cut-off stop Lubrication mode :pressure lubrication and splashed lubrication combination type Cooling mode : Forced water cool Overall dimension (L×W×H): 771 mm×687 mm×836 mm Total weight : 410KgOHC technology Rear gear train Integral main bearing seat 8- balance weight crankshaft Trapezoidal block structure Structure features and performance advantage CY4D115-C3 diesel engine structure features Overhead camshaft structure独 特 的OHC 技 术—— 顶 置 凸 轮 轴 The advantages of 4D115-C3 diesel engine OHC as follows: 提高了气门传动机构的传动效率,凸轮轴直接驱动气门,使配气更加及时、 准确。 Improve valve transmission mechanism working efficiency, camshaft directly drive the valves, which makes air supply much more in time and accurate. 与传统产品相比,减小了气门传动机件(挺柱、挺杆)的多项摩擦,降低了 噪音。 Compared with traditional engines, the friction of more valve drive parts (such as tappet and push rod) is reduced and so is the noise. 4D115-C3 diesel engine 采用顶置凸轮轴,发动机结构紧凑,提高了整机的刚性。By using overhead camshaft the engine structure is more compact and rigid.通过凸轮轴顶置使得喷油器安装位置和安装角度更接近于气缸中 心处,气门的直径在同缸径产品中达到最大,使发动机燃烧更加充分, 保证了优良燃油经济性。Overhead camshaft makes the injectors location and installation angle more close to cylinder center and the valve diameter achieve the biggest among the same bore engines, which lead the engine to sufficient combustion, the fuel economy is assured.4D115-C3 diesel engine rear end gear train drive 曲轴齿轮在曲轴后端。由于曲轴后端扭振振幅小,传动齿轮机 构布置在后端能提高齿轮的使用寿命和降低传动噪声。 Crankshaft gear is installed at the crankshaft rear end. Due to the less torsional amplitude, the transmission gear mechanism is rear end mounted, which can expand the gears service and reduce the gear drive noise.采用高精度的斜齿轮,提高了齿轮的啮合率和使用寿命,工艺 简单,装配方便 By using high precision bevel gears, the gear engagement rate and service life are greatly improved. with simple process and convenient installation.后 置 正 时 齿 轮 传 动齿轮传动要比挺柱、挺杆的直接摩擦运动更能使正时传动准确。 Gear transmission can have more precise timing drive than tappet, push rod direct friction movement 使机体前端空间更大,便于发动机及整机的附件布置,使整机的匹配及用户 的个性化需求得到充分实现。 More space in the engine front, which is convenient for engine dress up and vehicle application as well as customer individuation requirements. Rear End Timing Gear Transmission整 体 式 主 轴 承 座整体式主轴承座与机体结合更牢固,使曲轴装配更精确、变形小,运 转更平稳,噪声与振动大大降低。 The integral main bearing cap seat combination with block is much firmer, more precise with the crankshaft assembly, with less deformation, smoother movement and much lower noise as well as vibration. 传 统 分 体 主 轴 承 座 4D 主 轴 承 座 机体与瓦座不易损坏,降低使用成本。 The block and bearing cap seats are not easily damaged and very cost-effective when in operation . Traditional separate bearing cap 4D main bearing cap 机体采用等壁厚设计,梯形框架结构,最优化的形状,提高了机体的刚性, 使机体不易损坏,降低了使用成本。 With even thick wall design for cylinder block, trapezoidal structure,optimized shape. high rigid and cost-effective when in operation.曲轴采用八平衡块结构,提高了整体平衡性,减小了振动,降低了噪声,同时提高了可靠性。 8–piece balance weight crankshaft, good integral balance and reliability,with low noise and vibration. 八 平 衡 块 曲 轴 8-piece balance weight crankshaft 传 统 曲 轴 结 构 Traditional crankshaft structure 4D 八 平 衡 块 曲 轴 4D engine 8-piece balance weight crankshaft 整体布置:CY4D115-C3系列柴油机采用三点悬置;后置齿轮传动系;顶置凸轮轴; 右置排气管、发电机、空调机;左置进气管、喷油泵、机油滤、柴油滤; 后置起动机(在离合器壳后方左侧)。 Integral layout: CY4D115-C3 series diesel engine adopts 3 points suspension Rear - mounted gear train system Over head camshaft Right-handed exhaust manifold, alternator, air conditioner compressor Left- handed intake manifold, injection pump, oil filter, fuel filter Rear -mounted starter (at the rear left side of clutch)CY4D115-C3 Diesel engine configuration CY4D115-C3 Diesel engine configuration 机体组(cylinder block unit):采用对称布置梯形框架结构的机体,机体材质为合金铸铁,采用整体式 主轴承座。提高了刚性、降低了噪声和振动。Adopt symmetrical trapezoidal structure block, alloyed -cast iron material, integral main bearing cap seat.Improve the rigid ,reduce the noise and vibration CY4D115-C3 Diesel engine configuration气缸套为薄壁干式,由高强度合金铸铁制造,壁厚2.5 mm。气缸套凸 出机体上平面0.06mm~0.13mm,相邻气缸高度差不大于0.03 mm,同 一台机体高度差不大于0.05mm。气缸套压入机体时需保持缸套干燥和洁净。Dry thin wall cylinder liner, alloyed cast iron material, wall thickness 2.5mm.Cylinder liner protrusion above cylinder top 0.06- 0.13mm,the adjacent cylinder liner height difference not more than 0.03mm,the same engine the liner protrusion tolerance not more than 0.05mm.Liner should be kept dry and clean when pressing in 机体与整体主轴承座用10个M14和17个M10螺栓紧固在一起。 Cylinder head unit (气缸盖组)气缸盖由高强度合金铸铁整体铸造。气缸盖螺栓蘸油后分两次拧紧,第一次拧紧至100 N.m,第二次拧 紧至180 N.m~200 N.m. Cylinder head is cast with high strength alloyed cast iron. Cylinder head bolts tightening in two times by applying the bolts with oil, the first tightening is 100N.m, the second tightening is 180-200N.mCY4D115-C3diesel engine configuration CY4D115-C3diesel engine configuration 气缸垫是叠式钢质垫片,用三层不同厚度的优质钢板叠制而成, 用外缘侧的0个、一个、两个开口分别表示A、B、C组别。 Cylinder head gasket is of folded steel sheet, being made of 3 layers good quality steel sheet in different thickness. the outside edge shows 0,1,2 splits ,which indicates A,B,C group respectively. 换气缸垫时要测活塞的压缩余隙,余隙值为0.9-1.1mm。When changing cylinder head gasket, be sure checking piston compression clearance 0.9-1.1mm 缸盖垫分组(Cylinder head gasket grouping): 测活塞凸出高度(check piston top protrusion above cylinder top HL) a. 在位于上止点的活塞顶上测两点平均值。 b.根据四个缸中活塞最大凸出高度选择合适的气缸垫。 Average value from the two checking points measured at piston TDC Based on the max. piston height protrusion of the 4 cylinders, selecting cylinder head proper gasket 缸盖垫与活塞凸出高度分组表 Cylinder head gasket and piston height grouping table: 活塞凸出高度 HL Piston protrusion height Cylinder head gasket 组别 grouping 厚度 thickness 0.45-0.50 A 1.55-1.60 > 0.50-0.55 B > 1.60-1.65 > 0.55-0.60 C > 1.65-1.70气缸垫分组标记 (Grouping mark ) CY4D115-C3diesel engine configuration 曲轴飞轮组(Crankshaft and Flywheel unit ):曲轴为合金钢模锻件。为了提高平衡性、减少附加弯矩和轴承的旋转载荷、 降低振动和噪声,曲轴配置了八个平衡块。 Crankshaft is alloyed steel forged part, in order to improve the balance, reducing additional bending torque and bearing rotating load, lower the noise and vibration ,crankshaft is configured with 8 balance weights.曲轴齿轮加热至 180 ℃~200 ℃迅速装在曲轴后端。齿圈加热至180 ℃~200 ℃迅速装在飞轮上,并使端面与飞轮贴紧。 Flywheel ring gear assembly needs heating up to 180 ℃~200 ℃. CY4D115-C3diesel engine configuration CY4D115-C3diesel engine configuration 止推片装在第五主轴承上。止推片共两种3片,前止推片1片装在机体上,后止推片2片(此2片一样可以 互换)Thrust plate in No 5 main bearing cap. Thrust plate type 3 pieces, front thrust plate in cylinder block, the rear 2 thrust plates can be exchangeable活塞连杆组(piston and connecting rod unit)活塞采用了三道活塞环、桶面--椭圆裙部、热流型结构。 第一环为单面梯形镀铬桶面环,标记向上;第二环为镀铬、下切槽、锥面、扭 曲环,标记向上;第三环为螺旋弹簧内衬油环。 Piston is of 3 rings, barrel elliptical skirt, heat flow structure. The first bring is chrome-plated barrel type, with mark upside. The second ring is chrome–plated bottom scribed groove, cone-face, torsional ring with mark side up. The third ring is oil ring with helical inner spring CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration连杆为合金钢精密模锻,杆身上有一球状凸起的方向标记,与活塞组装 时和活塞顶上的方向标记要一致,都朝向发动机前方。Connecting rod is alloyed steel precision forge part.The ball protrusion mark on connecting rod body should be in compliance with the mark direction on piston top while assembly, they are all facing engine front . 活塞连杆装入气缸套内时,活塞顶面记号朝向机体前方。When piston connecting rod are assembling into cylinder liner bore, the mark on the piston top be sure facing engine front 杆身上球状凸起的方向标记 活塞顶上的向前方向标记 The ball protrusion mark on connecting rod body should be in compliance with the mark direction on piston topCY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration活塞环的开口方向与活塞销轴线方向相垂直,并且各环开口相差 180°。 油环开口和衬簧开口要相差 180°Piston ring openings direction be at right angel to piston pin axial line, the ring opening is 180°diference.Oil ring and inner helical spring opening is 180°diference.活塞环的开口位置如下图 piston ring openings direction as shown in the bellow fig :CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration活塞环的开口方向与活塞销轴线方向相垂直 Ring openings direction at right angle of piston pin axial line direction CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration活塞上有重量和尺寸分组的标记,连杆和连杆盖上有重量分组和配对标 记,组装时要细心挑选。连杆和连杆盖是配对加工,组装时严禁装错。每台柴油机活塞连杆结合组重量差不大于20g。活塞应选同一质量组别。 On the piston, there are weight and grouping marks, connecting rod body and cap have weight grouping and matching marks, be careful when assembly. Connecting rod and cap are matching part while machining, no assembly mistake is allowed. Each engine piston and connecting rod unit weight difference should not be more than 20g. Piston should be selected for the same group.活塞上重量和尺寸分组标记 On the piston, there are weight and grouping marks, connecting rod body and cap have weight grouping and matching marks活塞和缸套配合按表选配,配缸间隙 0.10~0.12 mm。 Piston and liner fit selection based on the table below, the fit clearance is 0.10~0.12 mm 活塞和缸套的配合尺寸 piston and liner fit clearance unit:mm 分组标记 Group mark 缸套内孔分组尺寸 Liner bore diameter size group活塞裙部分组尺寸 Piston skirt section size group AΦ110.020~Φ110.030 Φ109.910~Φ109.920 B >Φ110.030~Φ110.040 >Φ109.920~Φ109.930 C >Φ110.040~Φ110.050 >Φ109.930~Φ109.940 D >Φ110.050~Φ110.060 >Φ109.940~Φ109.950 配气系统 Air supply system 配气系统采用顶置凸轮轴结构,凸轮轴安装在气缸盖上的轴承座中。 曲轴齿轮通过惰AGD结合部 、惰轮B、惰轮C带动凸轮轴齿轮。凸轮轴轴向间隙为0.065 mm~0.198 mm。 Air supply system adopts overhead camshaft structure. Camshaft is located in the cylinder head bearing seat. Crankshaft gear drives camshaft gear by AGD idle gear assembly, idle gear B, idle gear C. Camshaft axial clearance is 0.065 mm~0.198 mmCY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration 气门摇臂由铝合金铸成,无衬套。摇臂上装有轴承钢制造的滚轮,与 凸轮形成滚动摩擦副;摇臂的气门端装有气门间隙调整螺钉,其上的球面 与气门杆保护帽相接触驱动气门运动。Valve rocker arm is of aluminum cast, without bushing.On the rocker arm being assembled with a steel bearing roller, which forms rolling friction pair with cam.On rocker arm valve end being assembled with a valve clearance adjustment screw, its ball face contacting valve stem protection cap for driving valve movement.CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration 安装摇臂轴时应使油孔朝上。 气门弹簧为变螺距、椭圆截面。 安装时,螺距较小的一端应向下,与气缸盖上的气门弹簧垫圈相接触。 When assembling rocker arm shaft, oil hole should face up. Valve spring is of Variable Pitch, ellipse cross- section. When assembling them, the pitch smaller end should face down, contacting the valve spring seat ring on the cylinder head .CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration 进排气门冷态间隙均为0.35 mm~0.40 mm。调整方法见下表: intake and exhaust valve clearance 0.35 mm~0.40 mmin cold stateThe adjustment as table below: 气缸号Cylinder No. 气门位于压缩上止点的气缸 TDC 1 2 3 4 进 In排 Ex进 In 排 Ex 进 In 排 Ex 进 In 排 Ex 1 0 0 0 0 4 * * * *CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration 注释Remark :当第一缸位于压缩上止点时,调整表中“0”标记气门,当第四缸位于压缩上 止点时,调整表中“*”标记气门。 When No.1 cylinder piston at TDC, adjust 1,2,3,6 valves clearance marked with 0 in the table. When No.4 cylinder at piston TDC, adjust the valves clearance marked with “*” in the table.凸轮轴前、中、后瓦盖上有标记号:1、2、3、4、5,表示组装时由前 至后排列。 Camshaft front middle and rear bearing cap being marked with 1,2,3,4,5, which indicates the assembly order from front to rear in turn. CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration 齿轮传动系统Gear drive system 采用全新的后置正时齿轮传动,齿轮的模数是3。齿轮室与飞轮壳铸成一体。 Adopting fully new rear mounted gear drive. gear module is 3.gear housing and flywheel housing is an integral casting. 组装齿轮时,在第一缸上止点时,曲轴齿轮上记号要与惰轮A上记号对准; 在第一缸上止点,凸轮轴齿轮内侧记号“B”、“I”或“●”的中心连线与缸盖上 平面对齐。 螺栓拧紧后,各齿轮应转动灵活;无卡滞现象。 When assembling gears, at No.1 cylinder piston in TDC, the mark on crankshaft gear should align with mark on idle gear A, At No.1 cylinder piston in TDC, camshaft gear inner side mark “B”、“I” or “●” center line should align with the top surface cylinder head After tightening the bolts ,the gears should move freely, without restriction. Gears drive relation sketch map 凸轮轴齿轮的记号“●” 要与缸盖上平面对齐。 Camshaft gear mark “●”should align with cylinder head top surface 各齿轮传动关系见传动示意图 Gears drive relation sketch map 01:曲轴齿轮 crankshaft gear 02:惰轮AGD结合部 idler gear AGD assembly 03:喷油泵齿轮injection pump gear 04:惰轮B idle gear B 05:惰轮C idle gear C 06:凸轮轴齿轮camshaft gear 07:机油泵传动齿轮 oil pump gear 08:惰轮E idle gear E 09:压气泵齿轮 air compressor gear 注: 1、凸轮轴齿轮上记号“B”和“I”或“●”在本图背面;2、符号 表示凸轮轴齿轮键槽的位置camshaft gear key groove;3、符号 表示曲轴齿轮键槽的位置crankshaft gear key groove ; CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration电控燃油系统 Electronic fuel system 采用BOSCH高压共轨系统,主要由ECU,高压泵,喷油器,共轨管 四大部件以及传感器、燃油滤清器、高低压油管等组成。 Adopting BOSCH high pressure common rail system, mainly consists of ECU, high pressure pump, injectors, rail as well as sensors, fuel filter, high, low fuel pipe etc. CY4D115-C3 diesel engine configurationCY4D115-C3 diesel engine configuration系统工作时,由高压油泵集成的齿轮泵从油箱中经滤清器吸油供给高压 柱塞泵。泵将高压油通过高压油管输送给油轨。When the fuel system in working condition, gear pump pumping fuel from tank, via fuel filter to high pressure plunger pump. The pump will transfer the high pressure fuel via high pressure line to rail.油轨上有轨压传感器监测轨内油压,信号反馈给ECU,ECU通过高压 泵上的比例电磁阀调整油路开度,控制轨压。On rail being equipped with rail pressure sensor for monitoring the rail inside fuel pressure, and the signal will feedback to ECU,ECU will adjust the throttle angle by the proportional electromagnetic valve and control the rail pressure.
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