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DCD_Trouble_shooting 柴油机常见故障分析及排除 中英版.ppt

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DCD_TROUBLE_SHOOTING 柴油机 常见故障 分析 排除 中英版
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DCD4102BZLQ发动机常见故障分析及排除DCD Diesel 4102BZLQ Engine Common troubles analysis and shoot (2008),Dongfeng Chaoyang Diesel Co.,Ltd,4102BZLQ发动机配车型,在哥伦比亚市发动机配车情况:配车车型轻卡JAC HFC1048,1061中巴车型HFK 6603,6730,4102BZLQ Engine vehicle application,In Columbia marketApplied to JAC HFC1048,1061Medium buses HFK 6603,6730,4102BZLQ发动机主要特征,五十铃发动机技术发动机标定功率88Kw(120hp)最大扭矩/转速343N.m(35)/1400-1800rpm排量3.856L气缸数-缸径X行程:4-102X118mm各缸点火顺序:1-3-4-2压缩比:17.5:1,4102BZLQEngine main characteristics,ISUZU technologyRated power 88Kw(120hp)Max. torque/speed 343N.m(35)/1400-1800rpmDisplacement 3.856LCylinder No.-Bore X Stroke:4-102X118mmFiring order:1-3-4-2Compression ratio: 17:1,4102BZLQ发动机主要技术参数,进排气门间隙0.4mm(冷车)压缩余隙(TDC,活塞顶面与缸盖底面之间的距离)0.9-1.1mm喷油嘴高出缸盖底面高度3.2-3.7mm机油压力:怠速油压≥118kPa 工作油压196-540kPa,4102BZLQ Engine main technical data,Intake and exhaust valve clearance 0.4 mm (cold state)Compression clearance(TDC,distance between piston top and the bottom surface of cylinder head) 0.9-1.1mmInjector nozzle tip protrusion height out of cylinder head bottom 3.2-3.7mmOil pressure:Idle oil pressure ≥118kPa Working oil pressure 196-540kPa,4102BZLQ发动机主要螺栓扭紧力矩,缸盖螺栓 118-127N.m(12-13kgf.m)主轴承螺栓 216-235N.m(22-24kgf.m)连杆螺栓 118-127N.m(12-13kgf.m)飞轮螺栓 196-216N.m(19-21kgf.m)飞轮壳螺栓 127-147N.m(13-15kgf.m)凸轮轴齿轮压紧螺栓 108-118N.m(11-12kgf.m)曲轴前端螺母 392-441N.m(40-45kgf.m),4102BZLQ Engine main bolt tightening torque,Cylinder head bolt 118-127N.m(12-13kgf.m) 87-94 lbf.ftMain bearing cap bolt 216-235N.m(22-24kgf.m)160-174lbf.ftConnecting rod bolt 118-127N.m(12-13kgf.m)87-94lbf.ftFlywheel bolt 196-216N.m(19-21kgf.m)145-160lbf.ftFlywheel housing bolt 127-147N.m(13-15kgf.m)94-109lbf.ftCamshaft gear pressure plate bolt 108-118(11-12kgf.m) 80-87lbf.ftCrankshaft front nut 392-441N.m(40-45kgf.m)290-326lbf.ft,4102BZLQ发动机使用主要注意要事项,长期停放的发动机在使用前,必须拧开增压器上面的进油接头,注入润滑油。发动机怠速运转不要超过10分钟,以免导致增压器漏油油底壳加机油在油尺上限和下限之间,到上限,可以,但一定不能超过上限,那样会造成烧机油。发动机磨合期5000KM 过后,要把喷油泵上限速螺钉上的尼龙帽拿掉。以免发动机功率不足检查调整气门间隙,冷车进排气门均为0.4mm.气门调整螺钉一定要扭紧。,4102BZLQ Engine main operation attention points,1,Engine long time no use, before operation, the oil inlet connection on the top of turbocharger must be open and fill fresh oil for lubrication2,Engine running should not exceed 10minutes,in case of turbocharger oil leaking3,Oil in oil pan should be filled between the upper mark and lower mark of oil dipstick, no problem for the max. level, be sure do not exceed the max .level. which will cause oil being burnt4,After engine run-in 5000KM,the nylon cap on the limit speed screw of fuel pump should be removed, in case of insufficient power.5,Mantenance period, check and adjust intake and exhaust valve clearance 0.4mm(cold state) and be sure the adjusting screw must locked,4102BZLQ Engine main operation attention points,,,4102BZLQ Engine main operation attention points,,水箱窜水,缸垫窜气.哧缸垫Radiator water flee,cylinder gasket gas flee and cylinder gasket being clashed and broken,1,气缸盖螺栓扭紧力矩不够或不均2,缸套突出机体上平面尺寸超差(突出高度0.05-0.12mm.相邻气缸高度差小于0.03mm)3,供油时间过早(供油时间过早引起柴油机工作粗暴,汽缸压力骤然增加,温度增加,极易引起汽缸垫冲坏)4,错将非增压机缸垫装在增压柴油机上导致哧缸垫5,缸盖变形,扭曲不平,导致哧缸垫(由于缸盖螺栓拧紧力矩不均所至)6如果多次哧缸垫,重要检查哧缸垫的位置是否为同一位置,如果是,则为该缸缸套突出高度超差,水箱窜水,缸垫窜气.哧缸垫Radiator water flee, cylinder gasket gas flee between cylinders and cylinder gasket being clashed and broken,1,Cylinder head bolt torque insufficient or not even (118-127N.m/12-13kgf.m)2,Cylinder liner protrusion above the top surface of the cylinder block over the tolerance (normally the protrusion 0.05-0.12mm,adjacent two cylinders protrusion height tolerance not exceeding 0.03mm)3,Fuel supply time too early (fuel supply too early will cause engine working too roughly, cylinder pressure suddenly increasing and temperature increasing ,which will greatly cause cylinder gasket being clashed and broken)4,Misassembly of non- turbocharged cylinder head gasket on turbocharged diesel engine, which will cause gasket being clashed and broken.5,Cylinder head being deformed, torsional uneven ,which will cause cylinder head gasket broken (due to cylinder head bolt tightening torque not even)6,If many time the gasket broken in the same place, check the cylinder protrusion.,从呼吸器口排机油或下排气严重Oil coming out from breather or severe blow-by,汽缸工作压力一般大于2.8Mpa油底壳内机油过高拉缸后气体进入曲轴箱内推杆室内的回油孔过小摇臂轴两边的阀堵脱落活塞环损坏 气缸内早期磨损,活塞与缸套之间间隙过大,造成下排气严重。,从呼吸器口排机油或下排气严重Oil coming out from breather or severe blow-by,Cylinder pressure normally more than 2.8Mpa 1,Oil level too high in oil pan2,When cylinder is seized ,the gas goes into crankcase3,Inside push rod chamber, the oil return hole is too small4,The oil sealing cups of both sides of the rocker arm shafts falling off5,Piston ring being broken or damagedCylinder liner premature wear, too large clearance between cylinder liner and piston, causing severe blow-by,烧机油的判断Oil being burnt judgement,1 气门导管油封漏油 2 油底壳机油量过多 3 活塞环对口 4 活塞环装反,卡死 5 活塞环,活塞,缸套磨损间隙过大,烧机油6增压器漏油,也可导致烧机油(判断方法:拆下发动机进气支管,看进气孔是否潮湿的)注:拆下发动机排气管可以判断哪个缸烧机油,Check valve guide oil seal,,烧机油的判断Oil burnt judgement,1,Valve guide oil seal leaking2,Too much oil in oil pan3,Piston ring openings in the same direction (alignment)4,Piston ring counter assembly or being stuck5,Turbo charger oil leaking, which also causes oil burnt ( way of judgement removing intake manifold to see whether the intake holes are wet)6,And remove exhaust manifold , which cylinder has oil burnt can be judged,油水混鉴别程序Oil mixed with water checking procedure,冷却水中有机油 Oil in water冷却水中有机油的主要故障原因是柴油机油路在某处与水道相通,柴油机工作时,机油压力大于水压,所以,机油进入水里,继而进入水箱 1 检查机油冷却器(打气压检查,要求大于5公斤的气压检查,在水中看是否有漏气现象) 2 检查缸盖有无砂眼或裂纹 3 分析为缸体油道与水道之间有砂眼或裂纹,油水混鉴别程序Oil mixed with water checking procedure,Oil in waterOil line has connection with water passage in some where, when engine in working, oil ,pressure is higher than that of water, and so oil goes into water and then goes into radiator.A, Using compressed air to check oil cooler (by 5kgf/cm2 air pressure test in water check the leakage)B, Checking cylinder head whether there is any sand hole or crackC, Analyzing cylinder block water passage and oil lines if there is any sand hole or crack.,油水混鉴别程序Oil mixed with water checking procedure,油中有水(Water in oil)1 气温在零度以下时,检查机油冷却器壳是否有裂纹,检查缸体推杆室水堵是否脱落,如有上述原因,是由于冷却水没有放净所致2 气温在零度以上时,检查缸盖水堵是否有漏水现象,检查缸体推杆室水堵是否有漏水现象3 推杆室内螺栓孔处是否与水道钻通有漏水现象4 拆下油底壳,对水箱加气压(2公斤压力以上),观察机体是否有渗漏水部位,油水混鉴别程序Oil mixed with water checking procedure,Water in oilA, Ambient temperature below 0 degree, check oil cooler whether there is any crack, check pushrod chamber water sealing cup falling off, if there is, that because cooling water is not drained out completely.B, If temperature is above 0 degree, check cylinder head gasket water sealing cups whether falling off, check pushrod chamber inside water sealing cup whether there is water leaking.C, Check pushrod bolt hole area whether there is any connection with the water passage due to over machining.D, Remove oil pan, using pressure air (above 2 kgf/cm2)check cylinder block ,see whether there is any water leaking area,油底壳内机油进柴油Fuel in oil pan,1 先用断缸停油法检查哪个缸不工作2 检查喷油器是否雾化不良(柴油在燃烧室内燃烧不完全或不燃烧,将会沿汽缸壁流入油底)3 检查配气机构的工作情况(气门间隙过大,使进排气门不能打开,或进气口堵塞,汽缸内没有新鲜空气,喷入的柴油不能形成可燃混和气燃烧流入油低壳4 检查喷油泵是否内漏,油底壳内机油进柴油Fuel in oil pan,1, By cutting off the fuel supply to cylinders, to check which cylinder is not working.2, Checking injector spray condition, (fuel incomplete or no combustion will come down along the cylinder liner wall into oil pan.3,Check air supply mechanism working condition (valve clearance too big, which will make intake and exhaust valve not open or intake port is clogged, no fresh air in cylinder, which make no formation of flammable air fuel mixture and the fuel goes down into oil pan 4,Check whether there is any internal leaking in fuel pump.,柴油机的早期磨损Diesel engine premature wear,1 进入汽缸内的空气不清洁(主要是检查进气系统,检查空滤,进气管,或直接压下进气门,检查缸盖进气道是否有灰尘)2 使用不当或机油质量差(长期不换机油或使用劣质机油,或机滤器不保养,使机油老化变质,杂质增多,使轴瓦及曲轴轴颈加快磨损)3 发动机水温过低(如把节温器摘除,或长时间怠速运行)零件表面温度过低,机油粘度过大,增加了摩擦副之间的运动阻力,使摩擦功损失增加.4 发动机水温过低,缸壁过冷,喷入的柴油会在缸壁冷凝.冲刷缸壁的润滑油膜.使缸套和活塞环磨损加剧,另外未燃烧尽的柴油流到油底,稀释机油,恶化了柴油机的润滑性能,造成缸套磨损加剧.5新机不经磨合就大负荷运行(中国走合时间大约60个小时,里程大约在1500-2500KM,哥伦比亚5000KM ),柴油机的早期磨损Diesel engine premature wear,Intake air is not clean( mainly check air intake system, air filter, intake manifold or directly press down intake valve checking cylinder intake port whether there is any dust)Improper operation or poor quality oil (long time no change of oil or no maintenance of oil filter, which leads to bad quality oil, dirt increasing in the oil, which causes quick wear of bearings and journals)Engine water temperature is too low (for instance, removing thermostat, long time idle running) the moving parts surface temperature is too low, and oil viscosity too thick, which increase the friction resistance of moving pairs and friction work loss increasing.Low water temperature, cylinder liner inside wall is too cold, the sprayed fuel got condensed on the cylinder wall and rinse the oil film on the cylinder wall. Which causes quicker wear between liner the piston and rings ,in addition ,the non combustion fuel going down the oil pan ,which deteriorate the oil lubrication performance, causing quicker wear of cylinder liner.New engine runs with big load without run-in(60 hours about 1500-2500km in China, and in Colombia 5000KM ),拉缸(Cylinder being seized),拉缸是指汽缸壁,活塞,活塞环等零件不正常的表面融化损伤的现象1 柴油机内缺水或水温过高2 活塞与缸套配合间隙过小,发动机运转后,温度升高,活塞膨胀后,造成拉缸3 活塞环开口间隙过小,柴油机工作时,活塞环膨胀,运动中会发生卡环或者断环现象,最后形成拉缸4 机油过脏或使用变质机油,柴油机工作中的油膜将容易遭受破坏,引起拉缸因此在更换活塞和缸套时,一定要先量好配缸间隙(0.1-0.12mm)喷油器雾化不好,滴油冲刷缸壁油膜,润滑差,造成拉缸。,拉缸(Cylinder being seized),Cylinder seized means the surface abnormal melt damaged of the parts such as cylinder liner inside wall piston and piston ring etc.1,Engine inside insufficient water or water temperature too high.2,too small clearance between cylinder liner and piston, when engine in operation, temperature goes high, piston expand, which causing cylinder seized.3,With too small piston ring opening clearance, when engine in operation, rings expand, or broken and finally cause cylinder seized4,Oil too dirty or with bad quality oil, when engine in operation, the oil film is easily damaged, which cause cylinder seized5,When changing piston and cylinder liner, the clearance between must measured before installation.(0.10-0.12mm)Poor injector working condition, fuel drop ,rinses oil on cylinder liner wall, causing poor lubrication, which leads to high temperature and cylinder being seized,柴油机功率不足(车没劲)Engine insufficient power,1 进气量不足(空滤堵塞,空滤进气管变形,或采用劣质滤芯,进气阻力大,新鲜空气进气不足)2 排气管堵塞或排气管道积碳过厚使排气阻力增大,致使汽缸内燃烧废气残留过多,影响进气量3 供油量不足(柴滤或输油泵进油接头滤网堵塞.使进油不畅,现象:发动机怠速,中速可以,大油门转速上不去)4 喷油泵各缸供油量不均匀,额定油量不准5 供油提前角过大或过小,柴油机功率都会下降,供油提前角过大在大油门时有严重的金属敲击声,供油提前角过小则感到发动机发闷无力,过热和排烟过多6油门手柄达不到最大供油位置7喷油器工作不良8压缩压力不足9使用劣质柴油,柴油机功率不足(车没劲)Engine insufficient power,1,Insufficient intake air (air filter is restricted ,air filter intake hose ids deformed, or bad quality filter element with big intake resistance, causing insufficient intake fresh air.2,Exhaust manifold is clogged or with thick carbon, which cause large exhaust resistance, and the combustion waste gas remains too much in the cylinder, affecting intake air volume.3,Insufficient fuel supply (fuel filter or delivery pump connection filter screen is clogged which causes no smooth fuel supply, the phenomena is when engine in idle or mid speed, no problem ,but when in high speed operation ,the accelerator speed can not go up.4,Fuel pump cylinders fuel supply not even, rated fuel volume is not correct. 5,Fuel supply advance angle too big or too small, the engine power will drop. When with big fuel advance angle in big acceleration, severe metal striking sound occurs and with small fuel supply angle, you can feel engine insufficient power, overheating and too much exhaust 6 ,Accelerator handle can not reach Max. fuel supply position 7,Injector not working properly8 , Compression pressure insufficient9,usinmg poor quality fuel,止推片脱落或磨损严重Thrust plate falling off or severe wear,安装时止推片装反,磨损后止推片脱落.止推片装反的现象是止推片合金面(有油槽)无磨损或较完好,没有合金的一面烧伤严重.正确的安装是没有合金的一面靠主轴承座盖曲轴大头轴承孔深度尺寸不够或变速箱一轴长故障现象是后端两片止推片烧损,前端的两片止推片完好,曲轴头孔内有磨损痕迹,发亮上述故障一般在发动机行驶8千公里以内,如无上述故障现象掉止推片,则可分析,推断为曲轴轴向间隙过大造成。曲轴轴向间隙0.115-0.256mm,Thrust plate oil groove side facing crankshaft,,止推片脱落或磨损严重Thrust plate falling off or severe wear,Thrust plate falling off or severe wearWhen installation, the thrust plate is assembled in the wrong direction, after wear, the plate falling off. The phenomena of thrust pate is installed on the wrong side, the thrust plate alloyed surface (with oil groove side )without wear or perfect, and the side without alloy got severe burnt damage. The correct installation is without alloy side facing the main bearing cap. Crankshaft big end bearing hole depth is not enough ,or gear box first shaft longer, the failure phenomena is the two thrust plates in the back got burnt, and the front two thrust plate perfect ,the crankshaft big end bearing hole has mark of wear and shinning The above failure normally occur when engine operates within 8000KM ,if no above phenomena, such as thrust plate falling off, which can be analyzed and conclude too large crankshaft axial clearance(standard,0.115-0.256mm) caused this failure.,连杆弯曲变形Connecting rod being deformed,连杆弯曲变形一般都是由于汽缸内进水造成比如过河或者洗车时不慎,水进入空气滤清器继而进入汽缸,造成连杆弯曲或者发动机缸盖垫破损后,水进入汽缸,强行起动或拖车,造成连杆弯曲检查连杆弯曲变形是否由于进水造成先检查空滤是否进过水,如果用户刚换过空滤,将发动机进气支管拆开,检查是否有水锈如果发现汽缸内进水,排除方法是将喷油器取下,空转起动机几次,即可将水排出,连杆弯曲变形Connecting rod being deformed,1,Connecting rod bent deformed normally due to water goes into cylinder Such as when crossing river or washing truck water goes into air filter and then comes into cylinder causing connecting rod bent2,Or engine cylinder head gasket broken, water goes into cylinder, force start or towing the truck, which will cause rod bent3,Whether is due to water going into cylinder, check air filter if water comes into it, if the customer just changed the air filter, you can remove the intake manifold, see any water rust mark4,If water is found inside cylinder, the way to eliminate water is removing injectors, empty running for several times, the water can be out.,烧瓦(Bearing burnt),. 1 缺机油,机油压力底2 机油过脏,变质或机油质量差3 喷油器工作不良,柴油进油底,机油粘度下降,烧瓦4 轴瓦和轴颈配合间隙过大,轴瓦间不能形成油膜,烧瓦5 机油泵工作不正常6 漏装机油泵传动轴套(更换机体时漏装机油泵传动轴套,主油道大量机油通过传动轴润滑油孔流回油底,使油压降低,烧瓦7操作不档,猛轰油门8主轴瓦上下装返(主轴承中间瓦下,没有油孔,若反,来自主油道的油孔堵死,使得主轴承和连杆轴承得不到润滑油而烧损9,加工问题,油道中有铁屑10,瓦质量不好11,瓦间隙大,转瓦,堵住油孔,烧瓦(Bearing being burnt),1,Lack of oil,oil pressure low(196-540kpa)2,Oil too dirty, deteriorate or poor quality oil3,Injector poor working improperly, fuel goes into oil pan, oil viscosity low, which causes bearing burnt4,Large clearance between Bearing and journal, oil film can not be formed5,Oil pump not working properly6The drive shaft bushing assembly is missed (when replace new block, the drive shaft bushing is missed, large quantity oil from main oil gallery goes by the shaft oil hole back to oil pan, and oil pressure is low, which causes bearing burnt7,Improper operation, heavily step accelerator 8,On main bearing capNo.3 upper and down bearing is counter assembled (the middle bearing down, no oil hole, if it goes to upper, the oil from main oil gallery is blocked, which leads to no oil lubrication for main bearing and rod bearing9, Machining problem, metal scraps in oil line10,poor quality bearing11,Large bearing clearance, bearing spin, blocked oil hole, which causes no lubrication for bearings,
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