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第4章TROUBLE_AND_TROUBLE_SHOOTING.doc

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TROUBLE_AND_TROUBLE_SHOOTING
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4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual CHARPTER 4 TROUBLE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING After the diesel engine has run for long time, some parts of diesel engine will wear or be damaged, which will cause its technical condition get worse. When the technical specifications are not in the limited range, it indicates the diesel engine is in trouble. The failures should be resolved in time when it appeared. If diesel engine works with malfunction, not only the power and economic capability will decrease, but also operation performance will change, even the accessories will wear quickly and diesel engine will be damaged. For some failures, such as air existing in oil system, clog of filter, loose of belt and so on that can be resolved after maintenance or adjustment. But for other failures, such as piston ring is further worn, cylinder gasket is damaged and so on, which cannot be resolved by maintenance or adjust because of the limitation of diesel engine. The operator has to disassemble diesel engine or change accessories to resolve these failures. ? Note: (1) Usually failure is caused by inappropriate operation or missing maintenance. The operator should check if the engine is operated according to regulated operation and maintenance when failure happening. (2) Resolve failure in time. Firstly, check out the reason of the failure. Then go to service station if need disassemble. (3) For complicated failures, the technician should perform the process with professional instrument and equipment. If the clients are not qualified to adjust or maintain the engine, they should go to service station. (4) It is not allowed for diesel engine to work with “sickness“. Engine working with “sickness“ will not only damage the parts and decrease the life span of engine, but also cause accident. The following failures and methods of eliminating are just for reference. 4.1 Diesel Engine Is Difficult to Start Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble Electric system fault Circuit connect fault or link not well Check electric circle linkage and reconnect it if necessary Battery voltage is not enough Charge the battery Starter fault Repair the starter or replace it if necessary 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual Fuel system fault There is air in fuel system Check the fuel pipe link for loosing: Loose the return valve of the fuel injection pump and the air release bolt of the fuel filter, pump the fuel by the fuel-water separator pump until there is not air in the fuel. Then tighten the loosed bolt and the fuel-water separator pump Fuel system pipe plugged Check the fuel pipe Fuel filter plugged Replace the fuel filter Fuel pump could not pump fuel or fuel supply not continuous Check the fuel intake pipe for air leakage; check the strainer of the fuel intake pipe for plug; make the switch on and off, check the fuel supply magnet valve for moving, if the magnet valve don ’t move, replace it Fuel atomization is not in good condition Check the injector for atomization quality, remove the injector, clean the needle valve and seat, replace the injector if necessary Chamber pressure is low Piston ring worn or damaged Replace the piston ring, replace the cylinder liner if necessary Valve leakage Check the valve clearance, check the valve sealing performance, repair or lap the valve if necessary 4.2 Diesel Engine Does Not Work in Full Power Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble Fuel system fault: power or speed dose not get higher when open the throttle largely There is air in the fuel pipe Drain off the air in fuel pipe as above method Fuel filter or fuel pipe is plugged Replace the fuel filter or clean fuel pipe Fuel supply or fuel inject pump is not enough Check the fuel injection pump, repair or replace it if necessary Fuel atomization is not in good condition Check the injector Fuel inject pressure is low Adjust the pressure with adjusting gasket Injector is damaged Replace the injector Fuel injection advance angle changed Check and adjust the fuel injection advance angle Intake and exhaust system fault: exhaust temperature is high and exhaust gas is unusual Air filter is plugged Clean the filter with high pressure air, replace it if necessary Exhaust pipe is plugged or exhaust resistance is high Clean the carbon in the exhaust pipe; replace the exhaust pipe with big enough section, the max. number of elbow is 3 Diesel engine overheating Cooling liquid temperature is too high Check the cooling system, clear scale, check and adjust the deflection of the belt; check 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual the thermostat and replace it if necessary Oil temperature is too high Check the oil level, fill oil if it is not enough Exhaust gas temperature is too high Check and adjust the fuel injection advance, check the injecting pressure and atomization of injector Cylinder head unit fault: in this case, not only the power is low, but also there are air leakage, black smoke, and unusual noise Cylinder head bolt is loosing or gasket is damaged Tighten the cylinder head bolt with the specification or replace the gasket Intake and exhaust valve leakage Check the intake and exhaust valve, lap the seal face of the valve and seat Valve clearance is not correct Adjust the valve clearance with the specification Injector hole leakage or copper washer damaged Disassembly the injector, repair or replace the damaged parts if necessary Crank and connecting-rod fault Copper bearing of connector little end clutched with piston pin Disassembly oil pump, check if connector big end could move axial, if could not move, disassembly piston connecting-rod unit to check and repair 4.3 Diesel Engine Running with Abnormal Noise ? Note: If there are unusual sounds when diesel engine running, do not let diesel engine run with unusual sounds. Trouble shooting and case Remedy the trouble Injecting time is very early or injector blocked, there is metal bit sound in cylinder Adjust the inject timing ( see Part3.8.5), check the injector ( see Part 3.8.4) Injecting time is very late, there is a bit sound, and for the same time there are whiff dense smoke exhaust gas Adjust the inject timing ( see Part 3.8.5), check the injector ( see Part 3.8.4) The clearance between connecting-rod little end hole and piston pin, there is little and shill sound when diesel engine running, this sound could be heard easy at idling, and get bigger when accelerating Replace the connecting-rod little end copper bearing, make the clearance within the range of specification The clearance between piston and cylinder liner is very big, bit sound could be heard at outer side of cylinder, and get bigger when accelerating Replace the piston, replace the cylinder liner if necessary The clearance between bearing and crankshaft, bit sound could be heard at crank case, and big bit sound could be heard at reducing speed suddenly Check the bearing, replace it if necessary making the clearance within the range of the specification Valve touch the piston when diesel(continue) Find the case, check the valve timing, adjust 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual (continue)engine running, big bit sound rhythm could be heard at cylinder head the clearance of valve ( see Part 3.5.4) Transit gear worn, clearance between gears get bigger, there is unusual sound from gear case, and bit sound could be heard when reduce speed suddenly Check the gear clearance, replace the gear if necessary The clearance between valve and rocker arm is very big, so bigger sound with rhythm could be heard at cylinder head Re-adjust the clearance of valve ( see Part 3.5.4) 4.4 Diesel Engine Exhaust Unusual Gas Trouble shooting Case Remedy the trouble Exhaust gas with black smoke Diesel engine work with over load Reduce the load of diesel engine Fuel supply to different cylinder is not same Adjust the fuel pump, make fuel supply to every cylinder equally Valve stem clearance is not correct, so that valve could not seal, exhaust valve leakage Adjust the valve stem clearance, check seal surface of valve( see Part 3.5.4) Fuel supply is too late, some fuel burn in exhaust manifold Adjust fuel supply advance( see Part 3.8.5) Air intake not sufficient, air cleaner blocked or intake manifold blocked Clear air cleaner, replace it if necessary Cylinder liner or piston ring worn Replace the cylinder liner or piston ring Exhaust gas with white smoke Water existing in cylinder or diesel oil Resolve Cylinder temperature is low at the beginning of start and oil not burn in some cylinders Increase speed or load appropriately for certain time Exhaust gas with blue smoke Piston ring is locked, over wear or deficient flexibility; the piston cutting angle is reverse which cause engine oil enter combustion chamber Check piston ring or replace if necessary Running with low load for long time, the clearance between piston and cylinder jacket is too big, which Increase load appropriately, check or repair 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual cause engine oil enter the combustion chamber Too much engine oil in oil pan Supply engine oil according to oil dipstick hole signs 4.5 Diesel Engine Oil Over-consumption or Lower Oil Pressure Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble High oil consumption Oil not comply with the regulation Replace oil Sealing gasket and oil seal out of work or leak Replace sealing gasket and oil seal Worn of piston ring and groove Replace piston ring or piston Worn of valve guide tube seal, valve guide tube or valve lever Replace oil seal, valve or valve guide tube Worn of cylinder Repair or replace cylinder jacket PCV valve leakage Wash or replace the PCV valve Low engine oil pressure Engine oil not comply with the regulation Replace engine oil Safety valve is locked Replace safety valve Engine oil pump filter is clogged Clean or replace filter Worn of driving gear and driven gear of oil pump Replace oil pump Oil tube is cracked or coupling is loose Check or replace Failure of oil pump Replace oil pump assembly Over worn of main bearing and connecting-rod bearing Replace main bearing or connecting-rod bearing Oil pressure gauge is damaged Repair or replace Engine oil cannot reach to valve system The oil hole on the cylinder block and cylinder head is clogged Clean or repair Oil hole on rocker arm shaft is clogged Clean or repair Oil hole on rocker arm bracket seat is clogged Clean or repair 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual Oil hole on rocker arm is clogged Clean or repair ? Note: If there is not oil pressure in the lubrication system or oil pressure is very low, diesel engine could not work continuously. In these cases, you should first stop the diesel engine to check what happened. 4.6 Diesel Engine Cooling System with Unusual Temperature Trouble shooting Case Remedy the trouble Overheat of diesel engine Cooling fluid level is too low Supply cooling liquid, check if there is leakage, repair if necessary Fan belt is loose or ruptured Adjust or replace fan belt Thermostat main valve cannot be opened Replace thermostat assembly Failure of water pump Replace water pump assembly Incorrect oil supply timing Adjust oil supply timing Radiator core is clogged Clean the radiator Overcool of diesel engine Thermostat valve cannot be closed entirely Replace thermostat Water temperature instrument out of work Gauge coolant temperature or replace water temperature instrument Lack of water Radiator leakage Repair or replace the radiator Radiator hose coupling is loose or the hose is damaged Tighten the coupling or replace the hose Water pump leakage Replace water pump assembly Heater hose coupling is loose or the hose is damaged Tighten or replace hose ? Note : (1) When the diesel engine is overheat, do not stop it suddenly or supply cooling fluid immediately. The operator should keep engine run with no load for a while; after coolant temperature decrease, stop engine and check. (2) When the diesel engine is still hot, do not touch the water inlet cover. Adding cooling fluid, the operator should be careful. (3) If the clients cannot find the reason of overheat, they should go the professional service station immediately, otherwise, other accessories will be damaged. 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual 4.7 Starter Can Not Run, Starts Powerless and Noise Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble Starter not working Start switch or other control circuits break Check to make sure circuit is tight Bad contact of carbon brush and commutator Adjust carbon brush spring pressure and clean commutator Inside circuit of starter is broken or short out Check starter Starter cannot drive the engine Deficient battery capability Charge the battery Bad wire connection Tighten the wire connection Burning loss of commutator surface Grinding the commutator surface or clean the stain Over wear of carbon brush cause bad connection with commutator Replace carbon brush or adjust spring pressure of carbon brush Main contact of solenoid switch burning loss or bad contact Use “0” nonmetal sand paper grind Serious worn of bearing Replace bearing After diesel engine start, starter still working and make noise The copper plate stick with two contacts Cut off power immediately, check circuit and adjust electric contact Starter armature axle is bent or broken Cut off power immediately and replace starter Gear is locked Cut off power immediately and adjust gear surface 4.8 Alternator Runs without Output, Charging Not Engine Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble Not working Incorrect connection, broken connection or bad connection Check the circuit Rotor coil is broken Repair or replace generator assembly Commute diode is damaged Change commute diode Bad contact of carbon brush Clean or replace carbon brush Regulator is damaged Repair or replace regulator 4JB1 series (diesel generator) maintenance manual Deficient charge Pulley is loose Adjust pulley Bad contact of carbon brush or stain on the ring Adjust and clean Regulator is damaged Replace regulator Lack of electrolyte or serious sulfidation of pole plate Supply electrolyte to regulated level or replace battery 4.9 Battery Capacity Is Not Enough, Starts Difficultly, Self-discharges Excessively Trouble shooting Cause Remedy the trouble Electrolyte is not enough and engine is difficult to start Electrolyte level is too low Supply distilled water or dilute sulfuric acid with density of 1:1 Pole plate short Clean out the deposit or replace electrolyte Sulfidation of pole plate Repeat charging and disc
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