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Hybrid14 Hybrid Vehicle Control System.pdf

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HYBRID14 HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM
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Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 4-1 TheHybridVehicleControlSystemmonitorsandadjustsallaspectsof thehybridpowertrain. w Itregulatestheengine,MG1andMG2tomeetthedriving demandssignaledbyshiftposition,acceleratorpedalpositionand vehiclespeed. w Itcontrolstheoperationofthehybridtransaxle. w Itoverseestheoperationoftheinverterandconverterasthey balancethepowerrequirementsofthevehicle’smany12-volt componentsandthehighvoltagecomponentsofthehybridsystem powertrain. BeforewelookatthecomponentsthatmakeuptheHybridVehicle ControlSystem,let’sreviewthespecialsafetyprecautionsthatmustbe takentoensuresafeservicingoftheHVsystem. RepairsperformedincorrectlyontheHybridControlSystemcould causeelectricalshock,leakageorexplosion.Besuretoperformthe followingprocedures: w Removethekeyfromtheignition.Ifthevehicleisequippedwitha smartkey,turnthesmartkeysystemOFF. w Disconnectthenegative(-)terminalcablefromtheauxiliary battery. w Wearinsulatedgloves. w Removetheserviceplugand donotmakeanyrepairsforfive minutes. Ifthekeycannotberemovedfromthekeyslotinthecaseofan accident,besuretoperformthefollowingprocedures: w Disconnecttheauxiliarybattery w RemovetheHEVfuse(20Ayellowfuseintheenginecompartment junctionblock).Whenindoubt,pullallfourfusesinthefuseblock. Inorderforyourinsulatedglovestoprovideproperprotection,the insulatingsurfacemustbeintact. Tochecktheintegrityoftheglove’ssurface,blowairintothegloveand foldthebaseofthegloveovertosealtheairinside.Thenslowlyroll thebaseoftheglovetowardsthefingers. Section 4 Hybrid Vehicle Control System Overview Safety Procedures NOTESection 4 4-2 TOYOTA Technical Training w Ifthegloveholdspressure,itsinsulatingpropertiesareintact. w Ifthereisanairleak,highvoltageelectricitycanfinditswayback throughthatsameholeandintoyourbody!Discardthegloveand startoveruntilyouhaveapairofintactglovesthatcanfully protectyoufromthevehicle’shighvoltagecircuits. Duetocircuitresistance,ittakesatleastfiveminutesbeforethehigh voltageisdischargedfromtheinvertercircuit . Evenafterfiveminuteshavepassedthefollowingsafetyprecautions shouldbeobserved: w Beforetouchingahighvoltagecableoranyothercablethatyou cannotidentify,usethetestertoconfirmthatthevoltageinthe cableis12Vorless. w Afterremovingtheserviceplugcovertheplugconnectorusing rubberorvinyltape. w Afterremovingahighvoltagecablebesuretocovertheterminal usingrubberorvinyltape. w Useinsulatedtoolswhenavailable. w Donotleavetoolsorparts(bolts,nuts,etc.)insidethecabin. w Donotwearmetallicobjects.(Ametallicobjectmaycausea shortcircuit.) TosafelyhandleaPriusthatisfullyorpartiallysubmergedinwater, disablethehighvoltageelectricalsystemandSRSairbags.Removethe vehiclefromthewater.Drainthewaterfromvehicleifpossible.Then followtheextricationandvehicledisableproceduresbelow: w Immobilizevehicle. w Chockwheelsandsetparkingbrake. w Removethekeyfromkeyslot. w Ifequippedwithasmartkey,usethesmartcancelswitch underneaththesteeringcolumntodisablethesystem. w Keeptheelectronickeyatleast16feet(5meters)awayfromthe vehicle. w Disconnectthe12Vauxiliarybattery. w RemovetheHEVfuseintheenginecompartment.Whenindoubt, pullallfourfusesinthefuseblock. WARNING Submerged Vehicle SafetyHybrid Vehicle Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 4-3 Afterdisablingthevehicle,powerismaintainedfor90secondsinthe SRSsystemandfiveminutesinthehighvoltageelectricalsystem.If eitherofthedisablestepsabovecannotbeperformed,proceedwith cautionasthereisnoassurancethatthehighvoltageelectricalsystem, SRS,orfuelpumparedisabled.Nevercutorangehighvoltagepower cablesoropenhighvoltagecomponents. TheHybridTransaxlecontains: w MotorGenerator1(MG1)thatgenerateselectricalpower. w MotorGenerator2(MG2)thatdrivesthevehicle. w Aplanetarygearunitthatprovidescontinuouslyvariablegear ratiosandservesasapowersplittingdevice. w Areductionunitconsistingofasilentchain,countergearsandfinal gears. w Astandard2-piniondifferential. The‘01-‘03PriususestheP111hybridtransaxle. Transaxle Cutaway Figure 4.1 T072f401p The‘04andlaterPriususestheP112transaxle.TheP112isbasedon theP111,butoffersahigherRPMrange,V-shapedpermanentmagnets intherotorofMG2andanewlydesignedover-modulationcontrol system. WARNING Hybrid Transaxle P111 Transaxle (’01-’03) Prius P112 Transaxle (’04 & later Prius)Hybrid Transaxle Specifications Section 4 4-4 TOYOTA Technical Training Acoilspringdamperwithlowtorsioncharacteristicstransmitsthe driveforcefromtheengine.Also,atorquefluctuationabsorbing mechanismthatusesadry-typesingle-platefrictionmaterialisused. Onthe‘04andlaterPriusthespringratecharacteristicsofthecoil springhavebeenreducedfurthertoimproveitsvibrationabsorption performance.Also,theshapeoftheflywheelhasbeenoptimizedfor weightreduction. ’03 Model ’04 Model Transaxle Type P111 P112 The No. of Ring Gear Teeth 78 u Planetary Gear The No. of Pinion Gear Teeth 23 u Planetary Gear The No. of Sun Gear Teeth 30 u Differential Gear Ratio 4.113 3.905 Number of Links 72 74 Chain Drive Sprocket 36 39 Chain Driven Sprocket 35 36 Counter Gear Drive Gear 30 u Counter Gear Driven Gear 44 u Final Gear Drive Gear 26 u Final Gear Driven Gear 75 u Fluid Capacity Liters (US qts Imp qts) 3 8 (4 0 3 3) 46( 49 40) Fluid Capacity Liters (US qts, Imp qts) 3.8 (4.0, 3.3) 4.6 (4.9, 4.0) Fluid Type ATF WS or equivalent ATF Type T-IV or equivalent BothMG1andMG2functionasbothhighlyefficientalternating currentsynchronousgeneratorsandelectricmotors.MG1andMG2 serveasthesourceforsupplementalmotiveforcethatprovidespower assistancetotheengineasneeded. MG1rechargestheHVbatteryandsupplieselectricalpowertodrive MG2.Inaddition,byregulatingtheamountofelectricalpower generated(thusvaryingthegenerator’srpm),MG1effectivelycontrols thecontinuouslyvariabletransmissionfunctionofthetransaxle.MG1 alsoservesastheenginestarter. MG2servesasthesupplementalmotiveforcethatprovidespower assisttotheengineoutput.Ithelpsachieveexcellentdynamic performancethatincludessmoothstart-offandacceleration.During regenerativebraking,MG2convertskineticenergyintoelectrical energywhichisthenstoredbytheHVbattery. Transaxle Damper MG1 & MG2 (Motor Generator 1 & Motor Generator 2) MG1 Description MG2 DescriptionHybrid Vehicle Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 4-5 TowingadamagedPriuswithitsfrontwheelsonthegroundmaycause themotortogenerateelectricity.Theelectricalinsulationcouldleak andcauseafire.Alwaystowthevehiclewiththefrontwheelsoffofthe groundoronaflatbed. Theplanetarygearunitisusedasapowersplittingdevice.Thesun gearisconnectedtoMG1,theringgearisconnectedtoMG2,andthe planetarycarrierisconnectedtotheengineoutputshaft.Themotive forceistransmittedfromthechaindrivesprocketdrivetothe reductionunitviaasilentchain. Power Splitting Device Figure 4.2 T072f402c NOTE Power Splitting DevicePlanetary Gear Connection Figure 4.3 T072f403 Section 4 4-6 TOYOTA Technical Training Item Connection Sun Gear MG1 Ring Gear MG2 Carrier Engine Output Shaft Whenthree-phasealternatingcurrentispassedthroughthe threephasewindingsofthestatorcoil,arotatingmagneticfieldis createdintheelectricmotor.Bycontrollingthisrotatingmagneticfield accordingtotherotor’srotationalpositionandspeed,thepermanent magnetsintherotorbecomeattractedbytherotatingmagneticfield, thusgeneratingtorque.Thegeneratedtorqueisforallpractical purposesproportionatetotheamountofcurrentandtherotational speediscontrolledbythefrequencyofthealternatingcurrent. Ahighleveloftorquecanbegeneratedefficientlyatallroadspeedsby properlycontrollingtherotatingmagneticfieldandtheanglesofthe rotormagnets. Onthe’04&laterPriusthebuilt-inpermanentmagnetshavebeen changedtoaV-shapedstructuretoimprovebothpoweroutputand torque.Thisimprovementprovidesabout50%morepowerthan previousmodels. Thisreliableandcompactsensorpreciselydetectsthemagneticpole position,whichisindispensableforensuringtheefficientcontrolof MG1andMG2. Permanent Magnet Motor Speed Sensor (Resolver)Hybrid Vehicle Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 4-7 Thesensor’sstatorcontainsthreecoils.Sincetherotorisoval,thegap betweenthestatorandtherotorvarieswiththerotationoftherotor. Inaddition,theHVECUusesthissensorasanrpmsensorcalculating theamountofpositionalvariancewithinapredeterminedtime interval. DTCP0A4BwillsetwhentheHVECUdetectsoutputsignalsthatare outofnormalrangeorspecificationconcludingthatthereisa malfunctionofthegeneratorresolver.ThefollowingInformationCodes canhelpisolatetheproblem: w 253-Interphaseshortinresolvercircuit w 513-Resolveroutputisoutofrange w 255-Openorshortinresolvercircuit DTCP1525willsetwhenvehiclespeedsignalsarenotinputfromthe resolverfor16secondsormorewhilerunningataspeedof20km/hor more.Thetroubleareascouldincludethe: w ECM w HVECU w WireHarness Speed Sensor (Re- solver) Operation Output coils B and C are electrically staggered 90 degrees. Because the rotor is oval, the distance of the gap between the stator and the rotor varies with the rotation of the rotor. By passing an alternating current through coil A, output that corresponds to the sensor rotor’s position is generated by coils B and C. The absolute position can then be detected from the difference between these outputs. Figure 4.4 182TH09 DTC P0A4B Generator Position Sensor Circuit (’04 & later Prius) DTC P1525 Resolver Malfunction (’01 & ’03 Prius)Section 4 4-8 TOYOTA Technical Training Theshiftpositionsensorsconsistofaselectsensorthatdetectsthe lateralmovementoftheselectorleverandashiftsensorthatdetects thelongitudinalmovement.Acombinationofthesesignalsisusedto detecttheshiftposition. Shift Assembly (’04 & later Prius) Figure 4.5 T072f405c Themotorintheactuatorrotatestomovetheparkinglockrod,which slidesintotheparkinglockpawl,causingittoengagewiththeparking gear.Thisactuatordetectsitsownpositionwhenabatteryis reinstalled,soitdoesnotrequireinitialization. Shift Control Actuator (’04 & later Prius) Figure 4.6 T072f406c Shift Assembly (’04 & later Prius) Shift Control Actuator (’04 & later Prius)Hybrid Vehicle Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 4-9 TheShiftControlActuatorincludesacycloidgearreduction mechanismthatincreasestheactuator’storque,ensuringthatthe parkinglockwillreleasewhenthevehicleisparkedonaslope. Thismechanismconsistsofaneccentricplatemountedonthemotor’s outputshaft,a61-toothfixedgearthatissecuredtothemotorhousing anda60-toothdrivengear.Astheoutputshaftrotates,theeccentric platepressesthedrivengearagainstthefixedgear.Thedrivengear, whichhasonetoothlessthanthefixedgear,rotatesonetoothforevery completerotationoftheeccentricplate.Theresultisagearreduction ratioof61:1,alongwithanequivalentincreaseintorque. Cycloid Reduction Mechanism 1. Eccentric shaft rotates with motor shaft, pressing driven gear against fixed gear. 2. Driven gear rotates one tooth for every full rotation of the motor shaft. 3. Reduction Ratio: 61:1. Figure 4.7 255CH13 Ifthereisamalfunctionintheshiftcontrolactuatorthevehiclewill notgointopark.TheMasterWarningLightwillilluminate,theshift positionindicatorsonthedashwillflashandtheParklightbuttonwill flash.Inthiscase,thevehiclecannotbeturnedOFF. Togetthevehicletoshutoff,stopthevehicleandapplytheparking brake.ThevehiclecanbeturnedOFFbutcannotbeturnedbackON. Adiagnostictestercannotturnofftheshiftcontrolsystemsoremove the30ampfuselocatedontheleftsideofthefuseboxonthedriver’s side. Cycloid Reduction Mechanism (’04 & later Prius) SERVICE TIP SERVICE TIPSection 4 4-10 TOYOTA Technical Training Opened Inverter Assembly (’04 & later Prius) Figure 4.8 T072f408p TheInverterconvertsthehighvoltagedirectcurrentoftheHVbattery intothree-phasealternatingcurrentofMG1andMG2.Theactivation ofthepowertransistorsiscontrolledbytheHVECU.Inaddition,the invertertransmitsinformationthatisneededtocontrolcurrentsuch astheoutputamperageorvoltage,totheHVECU. Theinverter,MG1,andMG2arecooledbyadedicatedradiatorand coolantsystemthatisseparatefromtheenginecoolantsystem.The HVECUcontrolstheelectricwaterpumpforthissystem.Inthe’04& laterPrius,theradiatorhasbeensimplifiedandthespaceitoccupies hasbeenoptimized. Theboostconverterboos
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