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Hybrid12 Engine Control Systems.pdf

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HYBRID12 ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS
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Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 2-1 The1NZ-FXEengineisoptimizedforitsroleasoneoftwosourcesof motivepowerinthePrius.Thesystemcontrolsthedistributionofthe engineandmotordriveenergyandthemostefficientengineoperation zonewillautomaticallybeselected.Theenginemaystopautomatically whenthevehicleisstartingoutandtravelingatlowspeedtoreduce fuelconsumptionandemissions. ThePriusengineoperatesontheAtkinsonCycle,whichallowsthe compressionandexpansionratiostobeindependentlyset.The AtkinsonCycleengineachieveshighthermalefficiencyandhasahigh expansionratiocycle.WhentheAtkinsonCycleiscombinedwiththe VVT-isystem,itprovidesthebenefitsofavariablestrokeengine.In thefullyretardedposition,theeffectivecompressionstrokenearly matchesthepowerstroke.Lateclosingoftheintakevalvecausesthe compressionstroketobeginlater.Thedisadvantageisthatpositive pulsesaredischargedintotheintakemanifoldresultinginlowintake manifoldvacuum.Thepowerstrokeremainsthesameallowinga longeramountoftimetocapturetheenergyoftheexpandinggases. Engine Components Figure 2.1 T072f201c Section 2 Engine Control Systems Overview Atkinson CycleSection 2 2-2 TOYOTA Technical Training TheMassAirFlowMeterusesaplatinumhotwireandacontrol circuitinstalledinaplastichousing.Themeterismountedintheair inletjustabovethethrottlebody. Thehotwireisinthecircuitthatmeasurestheamountofairentering theengineintake.Thetemperatureofthehotwireismaintainedata constantvaluebycontrollingthecurrentflowthroughthehotwire. Incomingairtendstocoolthehotwire.Asairflowincreases,current flowthroughthewireisalsoincreasedtomaintainthehotwireset temperature.Thiscurrentflowisthenmeasuredandreportedtothe ECMastheoutputvoltageoftheairflowmeter. TheIntakeAirTemperatureSensorisbuiltintotheMassAirFlow Meterandsensesthetemperatureofintakeair.AnNTCThermistor changesresistanceastheintakeairtemperaturechanges.Asintake airtemperatureincreases,theThermistorresistancevalueandthe signalvoltagetotheECMdecrease. TheEngineCoolantTemperatureSensorislocatedintheengineblock andsensesthetemperatureoftheenginecoolant.AnNTCThermistor changesresistanceasthecoolanttemperaturechanges.Ascoolant temperatureincreases,theThermistorresistancevalueandthesignal voltagetotheECMdecrease. TheAcceleratorPedalPositionSensorismountedontheaccelerator pedalassembly.TwoseparateHallEffectsensorsareusedtodetect acceleratorpedalposition.DuetothecharacteristicsoftheHall elements,differentsignalsareoutputdependingonwhetherthepedal isbeingdepressedorreleased.TheHVECUreceivesthesignalsand comparesthemforreliability. TheThrottlePositionSensorismountedonthethrottlebodyand convertsthethrottlevalveopeningintotwoelectricalsignalswhichare inputsVTAandVTA2totheECM.Thesignalshavedifferentvoltage values.TheECMcomparesthetwooutputsignalsfromthetwo sensorsforreliability. TheECMdrivesthethrottlecontrolmotorbydeterminingthetarget throttlevalveopeninginresponsetodrivingconditions. Engine Control System Sensors Mass Air Flow Meter Intake Air Temperature Sensor Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Throttle Position SensorEngine Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 2-3 Engineidlespeediscontrolledentirelybythrottlevalveopeningand theETCS-i.Noseparateidlespeedcontrolsystemisrequired.The systemincludesidle-upcontrolduringcoldengineoperation,intakeair volumecontroltoimprovethestartabilityoftheengineandload compensationforchangessuchaswhentheA/CisturnedONorOFF. TheKnockSensorismountedonthecylinderblockanddetects detonationorknockingintheengine.Thissensorcontainsa piezoelectricelementwhichgeneratesavoltagewhenitbecomes deformed.Cylinderblockvibrationsduetoknockingdeformthesensor element.Ifengineknockingoccurstheignitiontimingisretardedto suppressit. TheCrankshaftPositionSensor(NEsignal)consistsofatoothedsignal plateandaninductivepickupcoil.Thesignalplatehas34teeth,with onegapcreatedbymissingteeth.Theplateismountedonthe crankshaft.TheNEsensorgeneratesa34-pulsewaveformforevery crankshaftrevolution.Sincethisisaninductivesensor,boththe frequencyandamplitudeofthegeneratedsignalincreasewith increasingenginerpm.TheECMusestheNEsignaltodetermine enginerpmandalsoformisfiredetection. TheCamshaftPositionSensor(G2signal)consistsofasignalplate withasingletoothandapickupcoil.TheG2signalplatetoothison theexhaustcamshaft.TheG2sensorgeneratesone-pulsewaveformfor everyrevolutionoftheexhaustcamshaft.Sincethisisaninductive sensor,boththefrequencyandamplitudeofthegeneratedsignal increasewithincreasingenginerpm.TheECMusestheG2signalto determinethepositionoftheno.1pistonfortheignitionfiringorder. TheO2HeaterControlmaintainsthetemperatureoftheO2Sensors atanappropriateleveltoincreaseaccuracyofdetectionoftheoxygen concentrationintheexhaustgas.Onthe’01-’03Prius,thesensors include: w Bank1,Sensor1* w Bank1,Sensor2* *Sensor1-referstothesensoraheadofthecatalyticconverter.This sensormeasurestheoxygencontentoftheengineexhaustgases.The ECMusesthisinputtoadjustfueltrim. *Sensor2-referstothesensorafterthecatalyticconverter.This sensorisusedtomeasurecatalystefficiency. Idle Speed Control Knock Sensor Crankshaft Position Sensor Camshaft Position Sensor Heated O2 SensorsSection 2 2-4 TOYOTA Technical Training Note:The’04andlaterPriusincludesseveralnewDTCsfortheBank 1Sensor2OxygenSensor: w P0136-OxygenSensorCircuitMalfunction w P0137-OxygenSensorCircuitLowVoltage w P0138-OxygenSensorCircuitHighVoltage Onthe’04andlaterPrius,theBank1Sensor1O2Sensorisreplaced byanA/FSensor.TheA/FSensordetectstheair/fuelratiooverawider range,allowingtheECMtofurtherreduceemissions. TheA/FSensorusedistheplanartype.Comparedtotheconventional cuptype,thesensorandheaterportionsoftheplanartypeare narroweroverall.Becausetheheatoftheheateractsdirectlyonthe aluminaandzirconiaitacceleratestheactivationofthesensor. Theenginecoolingsystemisapressurized,forced-circulationtype.A thermostatwithabypassvalveislocatedonthewaterinlethousingto controlcoolantflowandmaintainsuitabletemperaturedistributionin thecoolingsystem.TheflowofenginecoolantmakesaU-turninthe cylinderblocktoensureevenheatdistribution.Theradiatorforthe engineandtheA/Ccondenserhavebeenintegratedtominimizespace requirements. Cooling System The coo/ing system has changed for the ’04 Prius. The coo/ant heat storage tank can store hot coo/ant up to three days. This allows for quick engine warm up and reduces emissions. Figure 2.2 T072f202c Air/Fuel Ratio Sensor Cooling SystemEngine Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 2-5 Startingonthe’04Prius,thecoolingsystemincludesaCoolantHeat StorageTankthatcanstorehotcoolantat176 5Fforuptothreedays. Whenstartingacoldenginethesystemusesanauxiliarywaterpump toforcethehotcoolantintotheengine.This‘preheating’oftheengine reducesHCexhaustemissions. ForDTCP1151,theRepairManualrecommendsreplacingthecoolant heatstoragetank.Butthereisalsoanoteinthemanualpointingout thatthisDTCcanbesetifthereareairbubblesinthesystem. Note:Toavoidreplacingthetankunnecessarily,checkforthesoundof airbubblesflowingthroughtheheatercore,whichcanbeheardfrom thepassengercompartment.Ifairbubblesarepresent,bleedtheair fromthesystemfollowingtheRepairManualinstructions.Clearthe codeanddrivethevehiclefortwotrips.Thecodeshouldnotreturn.If itdoes, then youshouldreplacethecoolantheatstoragetank. Coolant Heat Storage Tank The storage tank is a large vacuum insulated container located near the left front bumper. Figure 2.3 T072f203c Coolant Heat Storage DTC P1151 Coolant Heat Storage TankSection 2 2-6 TOYOTA Technical Training Coolant Heat Storage Tank Figure 2.4 T072f204p Coolant Drain Plug Outlet Temp Sensor Coolant Heat Storage Tank Figure 2.5 T072f205p Water PumpEngine Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 2-7 Whenservicingthecoolantsystemonthe’04andlaterPrius: w Disconnectthecoolantheatstoragewaterpumpconnector w Draintheenginecoolant w Operatethecoolantheatstoragewaterpumpwhenrefillingtohelp theinflowofcoolantintothetank Rotary Water Valve Switches between three positions to control flow of coolant in and out of coolant heat storage system. Figure 2.6 T072f206c Position Purpose VDC WaterFlowValve(VLV)3 Preheat&StorageafterPowerOFF 2.5V WaterFlowValve(VLV)4 StorageafterEngineON 3.5V WaterFlowValve(VLV)5 EngineWarmUp 4.5V TheECMusesthecrankshaftpositionsensorandcamshaftposition sensortomonitorchangesintherateofcrankshaftrotationaseach cylinderfires.Thecrankshaftaccelerateswhenacylinderfiresand slowsdownifthecylindermisfires.TheECMcountsthenumberof timesthatthecrankshaftslowsdownandthenindicatesthatamisfire hasoccurred.Whenthemisfirerateequalsorexceedsthecount indicatingthattheengineconditionhasdeteriorated,theMIL illuminates.Ifthemisfirerateishighenoughandthedriving conditionswillcausecatalystoverheating,theMILblinkswhenmisfire isdetected.Belowaresomebasictipswhendiagnosingavehiclewith DTCP0300. SERVICE TIPS DTC P0300 Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Water Valve PositionsSection 2 2-8 TOYOTA Technical Training Getdetailsfromthecustomer: w WhendidtheMILilluminate? w Didthecustomerrecentlyrefuel?Whatbrandandoctaneoffueldid theypurchase? ThePriusisdesignedtorunon87octane.Theuseofpremiumfuel maycausestartingproblems. w WiththeDiagnosticTestercheckandrecordDTCsandFreeze Framedata. w EvaluateengineperformancewhilemonitoringtheDiagnostic Tester.RefertotheDIsectionoftherepairmanualtofurther diagnosesymptoms. Misfire DTCs DTCNo. DTCDetecting Condition TroubleArea When two or more codes for misfiring cylinders are recorded repeatedly, but no random misfire code is recorded, it indicates that the misfires were detected and recorded at different times. P0300 P0301 P0302 P0303 P0304 Misfiringofrandom cylindersisdetected duringany particular200or 1,000revolutions. Foranyparticular 200revolutionsfor theengine,misfiring isdetectedwhichcan causecatalyst overheating(This causestheMILto blink) w Openorshortinengine wire w Connectorconnection w Vacuumhoseconnection w Ignitionsystem w Injector w Fuelpressure w Manifoldabsolute pressuresensor w Enginecoolanttemp. sensor w Compressionpressure w Valveclearance w Valvetiming w ECM w PCVpiping Thethrottlemotoropensandclosesthethrottlevalveoncommands fromtheECM.Theopeningangleofthethrottlevalveisdetectedby thethrottlepositionsensorwhichismountedonthethrottlebody.This sensorprovidesfeedbacktotheECMinorderforthethrottle valveopeningangletoproperlyrespondtothedrivingcondition.IfDTC P1128isstored,theECMshutsdownthepowertothethrottlemotor andthethrottlevalveisfullyclosedbythereturnspring. NOTE DTC P1128 Throttle Control Motor Lock MalfunctionEngine Control Systems Toyota Hybrid System Diagnosis - Course 072 2-9 TheECMreceivesdatafromtheHVECUsuchasenginepoweroutput requirement(requiredoutput),estimatedtorqueproducedbythe engine(estimatedtorque),targetengineRPM,andwhethertheengine isinstartmodeornot.Then,basedontherequiredoutputandtarget RPM,theECMcalculatesatargettorquethatistobeproducedbythe engineandcomparesitwiththeestimatedtorque.Iftheestimated torqueislowcomparedtothetargettorqueoriftheenginestartmode continuesattheengineRPMforthedurationcalculatedbywater temperature,anabnormalconditionisdetected. Some2001and2002PriusmayexhibitaMaster,HybridandMIL warningiflowenginepoweroutputisdetectedduringaparticular THSdrivecycle.Afterstartingthecar(READYlightON),P3191and P3101withInformationCode205maysetintheengineECM.After theREADYlightisONandthevehiclehastransitionedfroman electricdrivemodetoonewheretheenginepowerisrequired,P3190 andP3101withInformationCode204maysetintheengineECMand theHVECU. Manyfactorscanpreventtheenginefromstarting,includingtheFuel InjectionSystem,IgnitionSystem,EngineCompression,AirInduction System,andFuelQuality(Unleadedfuelonly).Butoneofthemost commoncausesissimplyrunningoutofgas.Runningoutofgasonthe PriuscancauseanyofthefollowingDTCs: w P3190-PoorEnginePower w P3191-EngineDoesNotStart w P3193-FuelRunOut w P0A0F-EngineFailedToStart Thecodeslistedabovemayberecordedaloneorincombination. Iftheinjectorsneedtobereplacedremembertobleedfuelpressure!If thepressureisnotbledthefuelwilldrainintocylindersandhydrolock willoccur! ThepurposeoftheHCACsystemonthePriusistoadsorban
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