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elec05 charging sys.pdf

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ELEC05 CHARGING SYS
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Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-1 Thechargingsystemhastwoessentialfunctions: w Generateelectricalpowertorunthevehicle’selectricalsystems w Generatecurrenttorechargethevehicle’sbattery Electricalpower- Atlowenginespeeds,thebatterymaysupply someofthepowerthevehicleneeds.Athighenginespeeds,the chargingsystemhandlesallofthevehicle’selectricalrequirements. Charging- Alternator(generator)outputishigherthanbattery voltagetorechargethebattery. Charging System The alternator supplies power for the vehicle when the engine is running and engine speed is above idle. Fig. 5-01 TL623f501 Section 5 The Charging System Charging SystemSection 5 5-2 TOYOTA Technical Training Thesecomponentsmakeupthechargingsystem: w Alternator w Voltageregulator w Battery w Chargingindicator Charging System Components This figure shows the major components of the charging system. Fig. 5-02 TL623f500 Charging System ComponentsThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-3 Thealternatorcontainsthesemaincomponents: w Stator(attachedtoalternatorhousing,remainsstationary) w Rotor(spinsinsidethestator) w Rectifier w Voltageregulator Slipringsandbrushesmakeanelectricalconnectiontothespinningrotor. Thealternatorgenerateselectricitythroughthesesteps: w Enginepowerdrivesthealternatorrotorthroughapulleyand drivebelt. w Thealternatorrotorspinsinsidethewindingsofthestator. w Thestatorwindingsgenerateanalternatingcurrent. w Rectifierdiodeschangethealternatingcurrent(AC)intodirect current(DC). Alternator Exploded view of the alternator’s main components. Fig. 5-03 TL623f503 AlternatorSection 5 5-4 TOYOTA Technical Training Thevoltageregulatorcontrolsthealternator’soutputcurrenttoprevent over-chargingandunder-chargingofthebattery.Itdoesthisby regulatingthecurrentflowingfromthebatterytotherotor’sfieldcoil. Today’sICvoltageregulatorisafullyelectronicdevice,usingresistors anddiodes. Voltage Regulator The voltage regulator controls the alternator’s output current. Fig. 5-04 TL623f504 Voltage RegulatorThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-5 Thebatterysuppliescurrenttoenergizethealternatorfieldcoil.The batteryalsoactsasavoltagestabilizer.Thebatterymustalways remainattachedtotheelectricalsystemwhiletheengineisrunning. Battery The battery supplies current to energize the alternator’s field coil. Fig. 5-05 TL623f505 BatterySection 5 5-6 TOYOTA Technical Training ThechargingindicatorisusuallyanON/OFFwarninglamp.Whenthe systemisrunning,thelightshouldbeOFF.Thelamplightswhenthe chargingsystemisnotprovidingsufficientcharge. Charging Indicator The charging indicator lights when the charging system is not supplying enough power to charge the battery. Fig. 5-06 TL623f506c Charging IndicatorThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-7 Currentinthechargingsystemchangesforthesethreedifferent operatingconditions: w IgnitionswitchtoON-enginestopped w IgnitionswitchtoON-enginerunningalternatoroutputbelow desiredvoltage w IgnitionswitchtoON-enginerunningalternatoroutputabove desiredvoltage IgnitionswitchtoON-enginestopped: w AssoonastheignitionswitchisturnedtoON,theICregulator causesacurrentofabout0.2ampsthroughtherotor’sfieldcoil. w TheICregulatorturnsonthechargingindicator. w Thereisnooutputfromthestatorbecausetherotorisnotturning. Ignition Switch to ON - Engine Stopped The IC regulator causes a small current through the alternator rotor field coil. Fig. 5-07 TL623f507c Charging System OperationSection 5 5-8 TOYOTA Technical Training IgnitionswitchtoON-enginerunning,alternatoroutput belowdesiredvoltage: w Thewindingsinthestatorgenerateavoltageanytimetherotoris energizedandspinning. w Voltagegeneratedinthestatorisappliedtothevoltageregulator. w Ifthealternatoroutputvoltageisbelow14.5volts,thevoltage regulatorrespondsbyincreasingcurrentthroughthefieldcoilof therotor.Thiscausesthevoltagetoincrease. w Achargingcurrentissenttothebattery. Ignition ON - Output Voltage Below 14.5 volts The windings in the stator generate a voltage, and a charging current is sent to the battery. Fig. 5-08 TL623f508cThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-9 IgnitionswitchtoON-enginerunningalternatoroutput abovedesiredvoltage: Whenthevoltageregulatorsensesalternatoroutputatorabove14.5volts: w Itreducescurrentthroughtherotorfieldcoil. w Thisreducesalternatoroutputvoltage. w Nochargingcurrentgoestothebattery. Ignition ON - Output Voltage High The regulator reduces current through the field coil; no charging current goes to the battery. Fig. 5-09 TL623f509cSection 5 5-10 TOYOTA Technical Training Safeguardsarebuiltintothealternatorincasetheconnectionto TerminalBorTerminalSislost: w TerminalSisaninputtotheregulatortomonitorvoltagelevels. w TerminalBisalternatoroutput. TerminalSdisconnected: w Thevoltageregulatordoesnotdetectvoltage. w ThevoltageregulatorregulatesvoltageatTerminalBto16volts andlightstheChargingIndicator. Terminal S Disconnected The voltage regulator regulates voltage at Terminal B to 16 volts and lights the charging indicator. Fig. 5-10 TL623f510cThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-11 TerminalBdisconnected: w Nochargingvoltageavailableforbattery. w Thisconditioncouldresultinvoltageregulatordamage. Terminal B Disconnected An open circuit in the B terminal results in no charging output for the battery and could damage the voltage regulator. Fig. 5-11 TL623f511cSection 5 5-12 TOYOTA Technical Training Thechargingsystemrequireslittlemaintenance.Thebatteryshould befullychargedandconnectionskeptcleanandtight. Diagnosisofchargingsystemproblemsistypicallystraightforward. Problemsmaybeelectricalormechanical. Thetroubleshootingflowdiagramonthenextpageliststhemost commonchargingsystemproblems,thepossiblecause,and recommendedactionstoresolvetheproblem. Beginwithathoroughvisualinspection.Ifthisfailstoturnupthe possiblecause,severaltestsareavailabletohelpyoufindtheproblem: w Alternatoroutputtest(noload) w Alternatoroutputtest(withload) w Voltagedroptests w Chargingcurrentrelaytest w Diodetests Diagnosis and TestingThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-13 Usethisflowdiagramtotroubleshootchargingsystemswithcompact, highspeedalternators. Troubleshooting Flow Diagram Fig. 5-12 TL623f512 Troubleshooting Flow DiagramSection 5 5-14 TOYOTA Technical Training Includethefollowingitemsinavisualinspectionofthechargingsystem: 1. Battery 2. Fusing 3. AlternatorDriveBelt 4. AlternatorWiring 5. Noise 6. ChargingIndicator Item 1: Battery Inspect the battery for the defects shown in this figure. Fig. 5-13 TL623f513c Charging System Visual InspectionThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-15 OtherBatteryChecks StateofCharge- Checkthespecificgravityoftheelectrolyteto determinethebattery’sstateofcharge. w Specificgravityshouldbebetween1.25and1.27(at80 5F/26.75C). Condition- Checkoverallbatteryconditionwithabatteryanalyzer. Other Battery Checks A hydrometer can tell you the battery’s state of charge. Fig. 5-14 TL623f514Section 5 5-16 TOYOTA Technical Training Item2:Fusing w RefertotheEWDtoidentifyfusesandfusiblelinksinthecharging systemforthevehicleundertest. w Checkthesecomponentsforcontinuity. Item 2: Fusing Fusible links must be part of the visual inspection of the charging system. Fig. 5-15 TL623f515The Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-17 Item3:AlternatorDriveBelt w Goodcondition w Correctalignment w Propertension Item 3: Alternator Drive Belt Alternator drive belts must be in good condition and be properly aligned and tensioned. Fig. 5-16 TL623f516cSection 5 5-18 TOYOTA Technical Training Item4:AlternatorWiring w Makesureallconnectionsarecleanandtight. w Checkwiringforfrayedinsulationandotherphysicaldamage. Item 4: Alternator Wiring Inspect wires and connections at the alternator. Fig. 5-17 TL623f517The Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-19 Item5:AlternatorNoise Listenforanyunusualnoisewhilethealternatorisoperating: w Squealingmayindicateabearingproblemorawornorimproperly tensionedandadjusteddrivebelt. w Hissingmaybeasignthatoneormoreofthediodesaredefective, becauseofapulsatingmagneticfieldandvibration. Item 5: Alternator Noise Alternator noise may be important in diagnosing potential problems. Fig. 5-18 TL623f518Section 5 5-20 TOYOTA Technical Training Item6:ChargingIndicator w IndicatorlightswithignitionONandenginenotrunning. w Indicatorgoesoffwithenginerunning. Iftheindicatordoesnotoperateasdescribedabove,refertothe appropriateEWDandchecktheindicatorcircuit. Item 6: Charging Indicator The Charging indicator should be on with the ignition on and the engine not running and off with the engine running. Fig. 5-19 TL623f519cThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-21 UsethefollowingstepstoperformthetestwithaSunVAT-40orVAT-60 tester: 1. Setthetester’sLoadcontroltoOFF. 2. Connectthetesterleads. w Redleadtopositiveterminal. w Blackleadtonegativeterminal. w Clamptheammeterclamp-onprobeontothebattery’sgroundcable. 3. Setthetester’svoltagerangetotheappropriatesetting. 4. Zerobothmetersonthetester,ifneeded. 5. TurntheignitionswitchtoON(donotstarttheengine). Alternator Output Test (No Load) A VAT-40 Battery Tester is connected for the no load output test. Fig. 5-20 TL623f520c Alternator Output Test (No Load)Section 5 5-22 TOYOTA Technical Training 6. Recordtheammeterreading. w Thisisthedischargecurrent(typicallyabout6amps). w Alternatormustsupplythisamountofcurrentbeforeitcan providechargingcurrenttothebattery. 7. Starttheengineandadjustenginespeedtoabout2,000RPM. 8. Allowenginetowarmupfor3to4minutes. 9. Recordtheammeterreading. w Addthedischargecurrent(fromStep4)tothereadingnowon theammeter.Thetotalshouldbelessthan10amps. w Thebatterymaynothavebeenfullychargedifthetotalcurrent ismorethan10amps.Monitortheammeter;thereadingshould decreaseasthebatterycharges. 10. Recordthevoltmeterreading. w Thevoltmeterreadingshouldbewithinspecificationforthe alternatorduringtheentiretest.Thisvalueistypicallybetween 13and15volts;refertotheappropriateservicemanualforthe correctspecification. w Ifthevoltmeterreadingishigherthanspecified,thevoltage regulatorisprobablydefective.Replacetheregulatorifpossible orreplacethealternator. w Ifthevoltmeterreadingislowerthanspecified,thecausecould beabadregulatororafaultinthealternatorwindings.Replace thealternatorifithasaninternalvoltageregulator. w Foralternatorswithexternallymountedregulators,confirmthe causebygroundingTerminalFonthealternator.Thisbypasses theregulator.Ifvoltageincreases,thevoltageregulatoris probablydefective.Ifthevoltageremainslow,replacethe alternator;thereisaproblemwiththewindings. 11. RemovegroundfromalternatorTerminalF.The Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-23 UsethefollowingstepstoperformthetestwithaSunVAT-40or VAT-60tester: 1. Keepthetesterconnectionsasforthealternatoroutputtestwith noload. 2. AdjustenginespeedtospecifiedRPM(refertotheappropriate servicemanual). 3. Adjustthetester’sloadcontroltoobtainthehighestammeterreading possiblewhilekeepingthevoltagereadingatorabove12volts. 4. Recordthehighestammeterreading. w Thereadingshouldbewithin10%ofthealternator’sratedoutput. w Replacethealternatorifthereadingismorethan10%belowthe valuespecified. Alternator Output Test (With Load) This figure shows the location of the “F” terminal for various alternator types. Fig. 5-21 TL623f521 Alternator Output Test (With Load)Section 5 5-24 TOYOTA Technical Training Voltagedroptestscanisolateunwantedhighresistanceinthecharging system.Highresistancecancausethesesymptoms: w Chargingsystemcannotfullychargebattery. w Abnormallyhighcurrentisdrawnfrombatteryunderhighload conditions. UseaDMMtoperformavoltagedroptestonthepositiveside ofthebatteryasfollows: 1. ConnecttheredmeterleadtoTerminalBonthealternator. 2. Connecttheblackmeterleadtothepositivebatteryterminal. 3. Starttheengine;adjustenginespeedto2,000RPM. 4. Notethevoltagereading. w Thevoltagedropshouldbelessthan0.2volts. w Ifthereadingishigher,lookforpoorconnectionsatthealternator andatthebattery.Also,lookfordamagedwiresorcorrodedwires. Testforvoltagedroponthegroundsideofthebatteryasfollows: 5. Keeptheenginerunningat2.000RPM. 6. Connecttheredmeterleadtothenegative(ground)battery terminal. 7. Connecttheblackmeterleadtothealternatorframe. 8. Notethevoltagereading. w Thevoltagedropshouldbelessthan0.2volts. w Ifthereadingishigher,lookforpoorconnectionsbetweenthe batteryandgroundandfromthealternatorframetoground. Also,lookforadamagedorcorrodedbatterygroundcable. Voltage Drop TestThe Charging System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 5-25 Voltage Drop Test Voltage drop tests can isolate high resistance in the charging system. Test voltage drop on the positive and the ground side of the battery. Fig. 5-22 TL623f522cSection 5 5-26 TOYOTA Technical Training
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