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elec04 starting system.pdf

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ELEC04 STARTING SYSTEM
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Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-1 Starter The starter motor drives the engine through a pinion gear that engages the ring gear on the flywheel. Fig. 4-01 TL623f401c Thestartingsystem: w Usesapowerfulelectricmotortodrivetheengineatabout200 RPM(fastenoughtoallowthefuelandignitionsystemstooperate). w Drivestheenginethroughapiniongearengagedwitharinggear ontheflywheel. w Disengagesassoonastheenginestarts. Section 4 The Starting System Starting System OverviewSection 4 4-2 TOYOTA Technical Training ThesecomponentsmakeupatypicalToyotastartingsystem: w Startermotor w Magneticswitch w Over-runningclutch w Ignitionswitchcontacts w Park/neutralposition(A/T)orclutchstart(M/T)switch w Clutchstartcancelswitch(onsomemodels) w Starterrelay Starting System Components - Automatic Transmission These components make up a typical starting system (automatic transmission). Fig. 4-02 TL623f402 Starting System ComponentsThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-3 Starting System Components - Manual Transmission These components make up a typical starting system (manual transmission). Fig. 4-03 L623f403Section 4 4-4 TOYOTA Technical Training Toyotavehiclesarefittedwithoneoftwotypesofstartermotors: w Gearreduction w PlanetaryReductionSegment(PS) Starter Motor The Gear Reduction starter is a compact lightweight unit with high torque capacity. Fig. 4-04 TL623f404c Thegear-reductionstartermotorcontainsthecomponentsshown.This typeofstarterhasacompact,high-speedmotorandasetofreductiongears. Whilethemotorissmallerandweighslessthanconventionalstarting motors,itoperatesathigherspeed.Thereductiongearstransferthistorque tothepiniongearat 1 / 4 to 1 / 3 themotorspeed.Thepiniongearstillrotate fasterthanthegearonaconventionalstarter and withmuchgreatertorque (crankingpower). Starter Motor Gear-Reduction Starter MotorThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-5 Thereductiongearismountedonthesameshaftasthepiniongear. Unliketheconventionalstarter,themagneticswitchplungeracts directlyonthepiniongear(notthroughadrivelever)topushthegear intomeshwiththeringgear. Thistypeofstarterwasfirstusedonthe1973CoronaMKIIwiththe 4M,sixcylinderengine.Itisnowusedonmost1975andnewer Toyotas.Ratingsrangefrom0.8KWonmostTercelsandsomeolder modelstoashighas2.5KWonthedieselCorolla,CamryandTruck. Thecold-weatherpackagecallsfora1.4KWor1.6KWstarter,whilea 1.0KWstarteriscommononothermodels. Thegear-reductionstarteristhereplacementstarterformost conventionalstarters.Section 4 4-6 TOYOTA Technical Training OlderToyotamodelsuseconventionaltypestarters.Thistypeofstarter drivesthepiniongeardirectly.Thepiniongearturnsatthesamespeed asthemotorshaft.Thesestartersareheavieranddrawmorecurrent thangearreductionandPStypestarters. Conventional Starter Motor Conventional type starter motors drive the pinion directly. Fig. 4-05 TL623f405c NOTEThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-7 Bothconventionalandgearreductionstartermotorsarefittedwitha one-way,over-runningclutch.Theclutchpreventsdamagetothe starterwhentheenginestarts. ClutchOperation: 1. Duringenginestart,thestarterpiniongeardrivestheengine’s flywheelringgear. 2. Oncetheenginefires,theringgearalmostinstantlybeginstoturn fasterthanthestarterpiniongear.Over-speedingwoulddamage thestartermotorifitwerenotimmediatelydisengagedfromthe piniongear. 3. Theclutchusesitswedgedrollersandspringstodisengagethe pinionshaftfromtheclutchhousing(whichturnswiththemotor armature).Thishappensanytimethepinionshafttriestoturn fasterthantheclutchhousing. Engine Starting The clutch housing, armature, and pinion gear turn together. Fig. 4-06 TL623f406c Over-running ClutchSection 4 4-8 TOYOTA Technical Training Engine Started The clutch housing and the armature turn together. The ring gear drives the pinion gear. The pinion shaft is disengaged from the clutch housing. Fig. 4-07 TL623f407cThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-9 TheignitionswitchincorporatescontactstoprovideB+tothestarter. Therelayenergizesthestartermagneticswitchwhenthedriverturns theignitionkeytotheSTARTposition. Ignition Switch With key to START position, B+ is applied to the starter motor. Fig. 4-08 TL623f408c Ignition SwitchSection 4 4-10 TOYOTA Technical Training Thepark/neutralpositionswitchpreventsoperationofthestarter motorunlesstheshiftleverisinParkorNeutral.Theswitchcontacts areinserieswiththestartercontrolcircuit. Park/Neutral Position Switch The switch closes with the shift lever in Park or Neutral. Fig. 4-09 TL623f409c Park/Neutral Position Switch (Automatic Transmission)The Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-11 Formanualtransmissionstheclutchstartswitchperformsthesame functionasthepark/neutralpositionswitch.Theclutchstartswitch opensthestartercontrolcircuitunlesstheclutchisengaged. Clutch Start Switch The switch closes when the clutch pedal is depressed. Fig. 4-10 L623f410c Clutch Start Switch (Manual Transmission)Section 4 4-12 TOYOTA Technical Training Insomeoff-roadsituationsitisadvantageoustostartamanual transmissionvehiclewhileingearwiththeclutchengaged.Thedriver- controlledsafetycancelswitchallowsthedrivertobypasstheclutch startswitchtomakethispossible.Thisfeatureisonlyavailableon somemodels. Clutch Start Cancel Switch This switch lets the driver bypass the clutch start switch for off-road operations. Fig. 4-11 T623f411c Clutch Start Cancel SwitchThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-13 IgnitionswitchinST: 1. Currenttravelsfromthebatterythroughterminal50“tothe hold-inandpull-incoils.Then,fromthepull-incoil,current continuesthroughterminalC“tothefieldcoilsandarmaturecoils. 2. Voltagedropacrossthepull-incoillimitsthecurrenttothemotor, keepingitsspeedlow. 3. Themagneticswitchplungerpushesthepiniongeartomeshwith theringgear. 4. Thescrewsplineandlowmotorspeedhelpthegearsmeshsmoothly. Ignition Switch to ST The plunger pulls the drive lever, which moves the pinion gear into engagement with the ring gear. Fig. 4-12 TL623f412 Gear-Reduction Starter OperationSection 4 4-14 TOYOTA Technical Training Pinionandringgearsengaged: 1. Whenthegearsaremeshed,thecontactplateontheplungerturns onthemainswitchbyclosingtheconnectionbetweenterminals 30“andC.“ 2. Morecurrentgoestothemotoranditrotateswithgreatertorque. 3. Currentnolongerflowsinthepull-incoil.Theplungerisheldin positionbythehold-incoil’smagneticforce. Ignition Switch to ST (Cont.) The magnetic switch closes and current from the battery drives the starter motor directly. Fig. 4-13 TL623f413cThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-15 IgnitionswitchinON: 1. Currentnolongerpresentatterminal50,“butthemainswitch remainsclosedtoallowcurrentfromterminalC“throughthe pull-incoiltothehold-incoil. 2. Themagneticfieldsinthetwocoilscanceleachother,andthe plungerispulledbackbythereturnspring. 3. Thehighcurrenttothemotoriscutoffandthepiniongear disengagesfromtheringgear. 4. Thearmaturehaslessinertiathantheoneinaconventional starter.Frictionstopsit,soabrakeisnotneeded. Ignition Switch ON Current through the starter relay stops. The pinion gear disengages from the ring gear, and the magnetic switch opens. Fig. 4-14 TL623f414cSection 4 4-16 TOYOTA Technical Training AllcurrentToyotamodelsarefittedwithPlanetaryReductionSegment Conductor(PS)starters. Planetaryreductionallowsthestartermotortooperateatahigher speedthanaconventionalstarter. w Thereductiongearsetreducesthepiniongearspeedcomparedto motorshaftspeed. w Highermotorspeedyieldsgreatertorque. Segmentconductortypestartersincorporateseveraldesign improvements: w Morecompact w Lighterweight w Greateroutputtorque PS Starter - Overview All current Toyota models are fitted with PS starters. Fig. 4-15 TL623f415 PS Starter Motors - OverviewThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-17 PS Starter - Construction Coil wires in PS type starters are square in cross-section for more compact winding and greater output torque. Fig. 4-16 TL623f416Section 4 4-18 TOYOTA Technical Training Armaturecoilwires- ThecoilwiresinaPSstarterarmatureare squareincross-section. w Morecompactwindingthanroundcross-sectionwires w Greateroutputtorque Surfacecommutator- Thesquareshapeofthearmatureconductors allowthesurfaceofthearmaturetoactasacommutator. Fieldcoils- Conventionalstartersusefieldcoils.PStypestartersuse twotypesofpermanentmagnetsinstead: w Mainmagnets w Inter-polarmagnets Thetwotypesofmagnetsarearrangedalternatelyinsidetheyoke. w Worktogethertoincreasemagneticflux w Allowsshorteryoke PS Starter - Construction PS type starters use two types of permanent magnets instead of field coils. Fig. 4-17 TL623f415 PS Starter Motors - ConstructionThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-19 WiththeignitionswitchplacedtotheSTARTposition: 1. CurrenttravelsfromthebatterythroughtheclosedST1contactsof theIgnitionSwitchandthePark/NeutralSwitch,throughthecoil oftheSTRelaytoground. 2. TheSTRelaycontactsclose. Ignition Switch to START Current from Ignition Switch ST1 contacts energizes the ST Relay coil. Fig. 4-18 TL623f418c PS Starter OperationSection 4 4-20 TOYOTA Technical Training 3. VoltageisappliedthroughtheclosedST2contactsoftheIgnition Switchtothehold-inandpull-incoilsofthestarter. ST Relay Energized With the ST Relay contacts closed, voltage is applied to the pull-in and hold-in coils. Fig. 4-19 TL623f419cThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-21 4. Currentispresentthroughthehold-incoiltogroundandthrough thepull-incoilandthestartermotorwindings(armatureandfield coil)toground.Thevoltagedropcreatedbythepull-incoillimits currentthroughthemotorwindingsandkeepsmotorspeedlow. Starter Motor Turns at Slow Speed Current is present through the hold-in coil to ground and through the pull-in coil and the motor windings to ground. Fig. 4-20 TL623f420cSection 4 4-22 TOYOTA Technical Training 5. Withthepull-incoilenergized,thesolenoidplungermovesthe drivelevertomeshthepiniongearwiththeringgear. 6. Asthepiniongearengagestheringgear,themagneticswitchcloses. 7. Withthemagneticswitchclosed,voltageisapplieddirectlyfrom thebattery,throughthemagneticswitch,tothepull-incoil.With voltageappliedtobothsidesofthepull-incoil,nocurrentispresent throughthecoil.Themagneticswitchisnowheldclosedbythe magneticforceofthestillenergizedhold-incoil. Current Through Pull-in Coil Stops With battery voltage applied to both sides of the pull-in coil, no current is present in the coil. Fig. 4-21 TL623f421cThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-23 8. Currentisnowpresentfromthebatterythroughtheclosed magneticswitchandthemotorwindingstoground.Thiscurrentis notlimitedthroughthepull-incoil,soitdrivesthestartermotor withgreaterspeedandtorque. Pinion Gear Engaged with Ring Gear With the magnetic switch closed, there is a large current directly from the battery through the motor windings. Fig. 4-22 TL623f422cSection 4 4-24 TOYOTA Technical Training WiththeenginestartedandtheignitionswitchreleasedtotheONor IGposition: 9. VoltageisremovedfromtheIgnitionSwitchSTcontactsand appliedtotheIGcontacts.CurrentispresentthroughtheIG2 contactstotheignitioncoils. 10. Currentthroughthehold-incoilstops.Currentthroughthepull-in coilreversesdirectionandflowsfromthebatterythroughthe magneticswitch,thepull-incoil,andthehold-incoiltoground. Withcurrentthroughthepull-incoilreversed,themagneticfields ofthepull-inandhold-incoilscanceleachotherout. 11. Areturnspringpullsthesolenoidplungerandthedriveleverback. Thepiniongeardisengagesfromtheringgear.Themagneticswitch opens.Currentthroughthestartermotorstops. Ignition Switch Released to ON Current is no longer present and the pinion gear releases from the ring gear. Fig. 4-23 TL623f423cThe Starting System Electrical Circuit Diagnosis - Course 623 4-25 Thestartingsystemrequireslittlemaintenance.Thebatteryshouldbe fullychargedandconnectionskeptcleanandtight. Diagnosisofstartingsystemproblemsisusuallystraightforward. Problemsmaybeelectricalormechanical. TheStartingSystemTroubleshootingchartliststhemostcommon startingsystemproblems,thepossiblecauses,andrecommended actionstoresolvetheproblem. Beginwithathoroughvisualinspection.Ifthisfailstoturnupthe possiblecause,severaltestsareavailabletohelpyoufindtheproblem: w Startermotorcurrentdrawtest w Voltagedroptests w Operationalandcontinuitytests w Startermotorbenchtests Diagnosis and TestingSection 4 4-26 TOYOTA Technical Training Symptoms Possible Cause Action Needed Engine will not crank w Dead battery w Check battery state-of-charge w Melted fusible link w Replace fusible link w Loose connections w Clean and tighten connections w Faulty ignition switch w Check switch operation; replace as needed w Faulty magnetic switch, relay, neutral start switch or clutch switch w Check and replace as needed w Mechanical problem in engine w Check engine w Problem in theft deterrent system w Check repair manual for system tests E
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