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SSP-873003-How to Read Wiring Diagram如何阅读布线图.pdf

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SSP 873003 HOW TO READ WIRING DIAGRAM 如何 阅读 布线
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J220 T121/ 76 sw/ws 0,35 T121/38 E45 E227 ws 0,35 T121/75 bl/gr 0,35 T 10e/3 T 10e/ 9 T 10e/1 sw/ge 0,35 sw/ge 0,35 ws 0,35 bl 0,35 sw/bl 0,35 T 10s/ 7 T 10s/ 5 T 10s/ 4 T 10s/ 2 T 10s/ 6 3 2 0 1 T121/57 T 10e/2 T 10s/ 3 ro/ge 0,35 A20 k ro/ge 0,35 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 127 i i sw/bl 0,5 169 gn 0,35 ro/li 0,35 3 4 T121/ 27 G70 bl/ge 1,5 2 sw 0,35 5 T121/ 29 T121/ 53 S3/4 17/30 23/87 J17 20 18/C 4 22/50 21/31 S2/5 24/TK 19/86 16/85 T121/65 li/ws 0,5 T 6/2 S3/6 sw 0,5 S3/3 20 li/ws 0,5 S3/5 ro/sw 1,5 S3/2 br/ge 0,5 S3/1 196 li/ws 0,5 A125 J234 T75/72 12 li/ws 0,35 31 31a j How to Read Wiring Diagrams Symbols, Layout and Navigation Self-Study Program Course Number 873003 Volkswagen of America, Inc. 3800 Hamlin Road Auburn Hills, MI 48326 Printed in U.S.A. August 2001Volkswagen of America, Inc. Service Training Printed in U.S.A. Printed 8/01 Course Number 873003 ?2001 Volkswagen of America, Inc. All rights reserved. Information contained in this manual is based on the latest ?information available at the time of printing and ?is subject to the copyright and other intellectual ?property rights of Volkswagen of America, Inc., ?its affiliated companies and its licensors. ?All rights are reserved to make changes at any time without notice. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, nor may these ?materials be modified or reposted to other ?sites without the prior expressed written permission of the publisher. All requests for permission to copy and ?redistribute information should be referred to ?Volkswagen of America, Inc. ? Always check Technical Bulletins and the Volkswagen Worldwide Repair Information System for information that may supersede any information included in this booklet.i Table of Contents Course goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Wiring Diagram Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Elements of a wiring diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DIN 72 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Introduction to Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wire colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Wire sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Other Conductor descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Connector Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Practical Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Navigation 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Navigation 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Navigation 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Navigation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix A: Component Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Appendix B: Wiring Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Appendix C: Component Codes and Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Appendix D: DIN Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix E: Wiring Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Teletest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Pageii Course goals This course will enable you to: ? Follow current from its power source to the Ground point quickly and accurately.  Understand the symbols of ?common components and circuit ?designations used in Volkswagen Wiring Diagrams.  Practice Wiring Diagram navigation through practical exercises and hands on examples. Course Goals1 Introduction As today’s vehicles become increasingly complex, so does the job of the technician. Wiring diagram navigation skills are critical to diagnosing and repairing today’s vehicle in a timely and accurate manner. ?This Self Study Program is not intended to instruct the technician how the electrical sys- tem operates in a vehicle. Given an under- standing of electrical operation, this Self Study Program will introduce you to the skills necessary to read Volkswagen wiring dia- grams. In this program you will be exposed to all aspects of wiring diagrams, including:  Commonly used symbols and their meanings  Current tracks, including how to follow circuits between pages or diagrams  Component identification  DIN standards for terminal designations  Wiring color codes and gauge (size)  Terminal identification on both connectors and components This book will provide examples of various types of circuits. The Computer Based Training (CBT) CD included at the end of this self study will provide an opportunity to prac- tice “hands-on” wiring diagram navigation. Areas of text that give the technician an opportunity to practice the concepts in the CBT will be designated with an icon of a CD (below) at the beginning of that section. IntroductionOverview Volkswagen wiring diagrams are a graphic representation of the actual vehicle wiring. They are developed from the engineering drawings that are used to produce the wiring harness. A consistent set of symbols are used to represent the actual components and conductors. Volkswagen electrical systems and wiring diagrams follow the German DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norm/Deutsches Institut für Normung) standards. These standards are guidelines for manufacturing in Germany, similar to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) in the United States. Layout The layout of wiring diagrams is common to all Volkswagen vehicles. Called “Current Track” wiring diagrams, they show the power source at the top of the page and the Ground points at the bottom. Situated verti- cally between power and Ground are the current tracks, which contain electrical com- ponents and conductors. This current track layout simplifies the wiring diagram. Conductor symbols crossing where they do not connect is kept to a minimum. Refer to the example on page 3 for the basic layout of the wiring diagram. Central/relay panel The central/relay panel is indicated in gray at the top of the wiring diagram page. The cen- tral/relay panel includes common power cir- cuits, such as battery power (30), ignition switched power (15), load reduction (75/X), and Ground (31). Ground Connections Ground connections are represented as a line at the bottom of the wiring diagram page, directly above the current track num- bers. All Ground connections, whether they occur as a splice in a harness, or the final Ground source, are numbered and identified in the wiring diagram. Conductors and components Between the central/relay panel and the vehicle ground at the bottom of the diagram are located the component symbols and conductors. Components are marked with a component code listed in the legend. Conductors are generally marked with wire color and size. Current tracks Individual current tracks are identified numer- ically along the base of the wiring diagram. These numbers are used to find the continu- ation of a conductor. Where the system or circuit layout is complex, this continuation may be on the same page, or on a different page. For example, the number 191 inside of the small box on page 3 indicates that the wire is continued on current track 191. Following straight down on the diagram, we see that this wire is on current track 5. If we were to navigate to current track 191, we would see the same color and size wire with a small box containing the number 5. Legend Below the current track numbers you’ll find a legend of the components (by component code) found in the specific diagram. This will often detail the location of a given compo- nent or connection. Wiring Diagram Overview ?23 Navigation Navigation in the wiring diagram is based around the use of the current track numbers. You will generally start with the affected component and then follow the associated circuit from there, tracing Power, Ground, and signals that affect the component’s operation. Wiring Diagram OverviewElements of a wiring diagram In this section, we will look at how various symbols are used in a wiring diagram to rep- resent the actual components on the vehicle. Every circuit needs a minimum of the follow- ing to operate:  Power supply  Consumer (load)  Ground  Conductors (usually wire) If any of these are missing, a complete cir- cuit is broken and the consumer will not function. The ability to break down a circuit into its individual parts is the key to being able to diagnose failures in the circuit. 4 Wiring diagrams incorporate many symbols used to illustrate a complete circuit. These symbols can include:  Current track numbers  Components  Terminal designations  Conductors  Connectors Together these components make up a com- plete and accurate wiring diagram. Elements of a Wiring Diagram5 Symbols Graphical representations called “symbols“ are used to represent components and con- ductors in wiring diagrams. The key to read- ing wiring diagrams is understanding the symbols. These symbols are standardized, allowing quick recognition of various components. DIN Standard 72 552 This standard applies to the terminal desig- nations for circuits. The purpose of the termi- nal designation system is to enable accurate connection identification from conductors (wires) to various components when diagno- sis and repair is necessary. Examples of DIN standards for terminal designations are shown below: 1 Ignition coil primary 4 Ignition coil secondary 15 Ignition switched, on and start 30 Battery + 31 Ground 31b Switched Ground 50 Starter control ?75/X Load Reduction/Ignition switched on only The terminal designations do not identify the wires, but the type of circuit. For this reason, the designations are not placed on the wires in the diagram, but on the component. Refer to Appendix D on page 36 for a more com- plete list of terminal standards. Be aware that some abbreviations are used, and they may be abbreviations of German words. For example, “GRA ” is the abbreviation for “cruise control” , and VL is the abbreviation for “left front. ” Elements of a Wiring DiagramThe following list shows the German abbre- viations to the English text for the most common colors. Refer to appendix C for other color code definitions. bl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blue br. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brown ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yellow gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green ro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red sw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black li . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violet ws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White Wire sizes Wiring diagrams also indicate the wire gauge used (shown in mm 2 ), designating the cross sectional area of the wire. Because standards exist for the maximum permissible voltage drop across a circuit, wire gauge is critical. ?If the voltage drop across the wire is too high, one or more of the following may occur:  The circuit may overheat  The consumer may not operate properly (due to low voltage condition)  Components may be damaged If a wiring repair needs to be made and met- ric sized wire is not available, the technician may need to use American Wire Gauge (AWG) sized wire. Note:  If the exact size wire is not available for a repair, use the next larger size.  For more information on wiring, refer to the Wiring Harness Inspection and Repair SSP (course number 871003). 6 Introduction to Conductors The wiring harness and related components may contain many different types of conduc- tors, including wires, internal connections, threaded connections, welded connections, push-on connectors, multiple point connec- tors and Ground. The complete list of wiring connections and symbols is shown in Appendix B. Wires Wires are conductors that carry current to components, and are usually indicated by a solid line. A wire shown as a dashed line in a wiring diagram indicates that the wire does not apply to all vehicles, and is noted in the wiring diagram legend. Wire colors Knowing the standards for wiring colors makes the job of reading and interpreting them easier. Some of the common stan- dards include wiring color for specific cir- cuits, as well as the terminal designation. For example: Red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery + Green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ignition (1) Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground (31) Yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Headlights (58) Once the technician has an understanding of the color guides, the job of isolating systems becomes easier. Wire colors are shown as abbreviations of the German word for the color. Elements of a Wiring Diagram7 Other conductor descriptions Internal conductors exist inside compo- nents, acting as bridges between the wiring harness and the final consumer. In some components these conductors are labeled in the component. An example would be the 30 circuit (Battery +) in the central/relay panel. In other components the conductor is not labeled. Internal conductors are shown as thin, black lines. Physical contact Some components, such as the starter or generator, may receive Ground where they are bolted to the engine or transmission. This is also shown as a thin black line. Welded connections are used in wiring har- nesses to join multiple, smaller gauge wires to a single larger wire which terminates at the fuse relay panel or chassis Ground. Sometimes a welded connection is shown with the thin line not terminating at another wire. This symbolizes that this welded con- nection is used in other diagrams for the car. The technician may need to reference other diagrams to locate components or Gr

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