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Lightweight_Electric_Hybrid_Vehicle_Design.pdf

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LIGHTWEIGHT_ELECTRIC_HYBRID_VEHICLE_DESIGN
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亚博足彩开户Lightweight Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Design Prelim.pm6 21?04?01,?1:52?PM 1Lightweight Electric/ Hybrid Vehicle Design Ron Hodkinson and John Fenton OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW?DELHI Prelim.pm6 21?04?01,?1:52?PM 3iv Contents Butterworth?Heinemann Linacre?House,?Jordan?Hill,?Oxford?OX2?8DP 225?Wildwood?Avenue,?Woburn,?MA?01801?2041 A?division?of?Reed?Educational?and?Professional?Publishing?Ltd A?member?of?the?Reed?Elsevier?plc?group First?published?2001 ??Reed?Educational?and?Professional?Publishing?Ltd?2001 All?rights?reserved.?No?part?of?this?publication?may?be?reproduced?in?any material?form?(including?photocopying?or?storing?in?any?medium?by?electronic means?and?whether?or?not?transiently?or?incidentally?to?some?other?use?of?this publication)?without?the?written?permission?of?the?copyright?holder?except?in accordance?with?the?provisions?of?the?Copyright,?Designs?and?Patents?Act 1988?or?under?the?terms?of?a?licence?issued?by?the?Copyright?Licensing Agency?Ltd,?90?Tottenham?Court?Road,?London,?England?W1P?9HE. Applications?for?the?copyright?holder’s?written?permission?to?reproduce?any part?of?this?publication?should?be?addressed?to?the?publishers British?Library?Cataloguing?in?Publication?Data A?catalogue?record?for?this?book?is?available?from?the?British?Library Library?of?Congress?Cataloguing?in?Publication?Data A?catalogue?record?for?this?book?is?available?from?the?Library?of?Congress ISBN?0?7506?5092?3 Prelim.pm6 21?04?01,?1:52?PM 4Contents v Contents Preface vii About the authors ix Introduction xi Part 1 Electromotive T echnology (Ron Hodkinson MSc MIEE) 1 1 Current EV design approaches 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Case?for?electric?vehicles 3 1.3 Selecting?EV?motor?type?for?particular?vehicle?application 15 1.4 Inverter?technology 21 1.5 Electric?vehicle?drives:?optimum?solutions?for?motors,?drives?and?batteries 24 2 Viable energy storage systems 29 2.1 Electronic?battery 29 2.2 Battery?performance:?existing?systems 29 2.3 Status?of?the?aluminium?battery 35 2.4 Advanced?fuel?cell?control?systems 39 2.5 Waste?heat?recovery,?key?element?in?supercar?efficiency 50 3 Electric motor and drive-controller design 56 3.1 Introduction 56 3.2 Electric?truck?motor?considerations 56 3.3 Brushless?DC?motor?design?for?a?small?car 58 3.4 Brushless?motor?design?for?a?medium?car 61 3.5 Brushless?PM?motor:?design?and?FE?analysis?of?a?150?kW?machine 64 3.6 High?frequency?motor?characteristics 68 3.7 Innovative?drive?scheme?for?DC?series?motors 73 4 Process engineering and control of fuel cells, prospects for EV packages 80 4.1 Introduction 80 4.2 Reforming?and?other?hydrogen?feedstocks 82 4.3 Characteristics,?advantages?and?status?of?fuel?cells 83 4.4 Thermodynamics?of?fuel?cells 84 Prelim.pm6 21?04?01,?1:52?PM 5vi Contents 4.5 Process?engineering?of?fuel?cells 87 4.6 Steps?towards?the?fuel?cell?engine 89 4.7 Prospects?for?EV?package?design 93 4.8 Fuel?cell?vehicles?and?infrastructure 96 4.9 The?PNGV?programme:?impetus?for?change 98 Part 2 EV Design Packages/Design for Light Weight 103 (John Fenton MSc MIMechE) 5 Battery/fuel-cell EV design packages 105 5.1 Introduction 105 5.2 Electric?batteries 105 5.3 Battery?car?conversion?technology 115 5.4 EV?development?history 119 5.5 Contemporary?electric?car?technology 122 5.6 Electric?van?and?truck?design 128 5.7 Fuel?cell?powered?vehicles 135 6 Hybrid vehicle design 141 6.1 Introduction 141 6.2 Hybrid?drive?prospects 143 6.3 Hybrid?technology?case?studies 146 6.4 Production?hybrid?drive?cars 156 6.5 Hybrid?passenger?and?goods?vehicles 164 7 Lightweight construction materials and techniques 173 7.1 Introduction 173 7.2 The?‘composite’?approach 173 7.3 Plastic?mouldings?for?open?canopy?shells 178 7.4 Materials?for?specialist?EV?structures 182 7.5 Ultra?lightweight?construction?case?study 191 7.6 Weight?reduction?in?metal?structures 192 8 Design for optimum body-structural and running-gear performance efficiency 199 8.1 Introduction 199 8.2 Structural?package?and?elements 200 8.3 ‘Punt’?type?structures 209 8.4 Optimizing?substructures?and?individual?elements 211 8.5 Designing?against?fatigue 217 8.6 Finite?element?analysis?(FEA) 218 8.7 Case?study?of?FEA?for?EVs?and?structural?analysis?assemblies 223 8.8 Running?gear?design?for?optimum?performance?and?lightweight 223 8.9 Lightweight?vehicle?suspension 231 8.10 Handling?and?steering 232 8.11 Traction?and?braking?systems 235 8.12 Lightweight?shafting,?CV?jointing?and?road?wheels 241 8.13 Rolling?resistance 243 Index 251 Prelim.pm6 21?04?01,?1:52?PM 6Preface vii Preface The?stage?is?now?reached?when?the?transition?from?low?volume?to?high?volume?manufacture?of fuel?cells?is?imminent?and?after?an?intense?period?of?value?engineering,?suppliers?are?moving towards?affordable?stacks?for?automotive?propulsion?purposes.?Since?this?book?went?to?press,?the automotive?application?of?fuel?cells?for?pilot?production?vehicles?has?proceeded?apace,?with?Daewoo, as?an?example,?investing?$5.9?million?in?a?fuel?cell?powered?vehicle?based?on?the?Rezzo?minivan, for?which?it?is?developing?a?methanol?reforming?system.?Honda?has?also?made?an?important?advance with?version?3?of?its?FCX?fuel?cell?vehicle,?using?a?Ballard?cell?stack?and?an?ultracapacitor?to boost?acceleration.?Its?electric?motor?now?weighs?25%?less?and?develops?25%?more?power?and start?up?time?has?been?reduced?from?10?minutes?to?10?seconds.?Ballard?have?introduced?the?Mk900 fuel?cell?now?developing?75?kW?(50%?up?on?the?preceding?model).?Weight?has?decreased?and power?density?increased,?each?by?30%,?while?size?has?dropped?by?50%.?The?factory?is?to?produce this?stack?in?much?higher?volumes?than?its?predecessor.?While?GM?are?following?the environmentally?unfriendly?route?of?reformed?gasoline?for?obtaining?hydrogen?fuel,?Daimler Chrysler?are?plumping?for?the?methanol?route,?with?the?future?option?of?fuel?production?from renewables;?they?are?now?heading?for?a?market?entry?with?this?technology,?according?to?press reports. A?recent?DaimlerChrysler?press?release?describes?the?latest?NECAR,?with?new?Ballard?Stack, which?is?described?in?its?earlier?Phase?4?form?in?Chapter?5,?pp.?139–140.?NECAR?5?has?now become?a?methanol?powered?fuel?cell?vehicle?suitable?for?normal?practical?use.?The?environmentally friendly?vehicle?reaches?speeds?of?more?than?150?kilometres?per?hour?and?the?entire?fuel?cell?drive system?–?including?the?methanol?reformer?–?has?been?installed?in?the?underbody?of?a?Mercedes? Benz?A?Class?for?the?very?first?time.?The?vehicle?therefore?provides?about?as?much?space?as?a conventional?A?Class.?Since?the?NECAR?3?phase,?in?1997,?the?engineers?have?succeeded?in?reducing the?size?of?the?system?by?half?and?fitting?it?within?the?sandwich?floor.?At?the?same?time,?they?have managed?to?reduce?the?weight?of?the?system,?and?therefore?the?weight?of?the?car,?by?about?300?kg. While?NECAR?3?required?two?fuel?cell?stacks?to?generate?50?kW?of?electric?power,?a?single?stack now?delivers?75?kW?in?NECAR?5.?And?although?the?NECAR?5?experimental?vehicle?is?heavier than?a?conventional?car,?it?utilizes?energy?from?its?fuel?over?25%?more?efficiently.?The?development engineers?have?also?used?more?economical?materials,?to?lower?production?cost. Methanol?‘fuel’?could?be?sold?through?a?network?of?filling?stations?similar?to?the?ones?we?use today.?The?exhaust?emissions?from?‘methanolized’?hydrogen?fuel?cell?vehicles?are?very?much lower?than?from?even?the?best?internal?combustion?engines.?The?use?of?methanol?powered?fuel?cell vehicles?could?reduce?carbon?dioxide?emissions?by?about?a?third?and?smog?causing?emissions?to nearly?zero.?Methanol?can?either?be?produced?as?a?renewable?energy?source?from?biomass?or?from Preface?a.pm6 21?04?01,?1:53?PM 7viii Preface natural?gas,?which?is?often?burned?off?as?a?waste?product?of?petroleum?production?and?is?still available?in?many?regions?around?the?world.?To?quote?D?C?board?members,?‘there?have?already been?two?oil?crises;?we?are?obligated?to?prevent?a?third?one,’?says?Jürgen?E.?Schrempp,?Chairman of?the?Board?Of?Management?of?DaimlerChrysler.?‘The?fuel?cell?offers?a?realistic?opportunity?to supplement?the?‘petroleum?monoculture’?over?the?long?term.’?The?company?will?invest?about?DM 2?billion?(over?$?1?billion)?to?develop?the?new?drive?system?from?the?first?prototype?to?the?point?of mass?production.?In?the?past?six?years?the?company?has?already?equipped?and?presented?16?passenger cars,?vans?and?buses?with ? fuel?cell?drives–more?than?the?total?of?all?its?competitors?worldwide. Professor?Klaus?Dieter?V?hringer,?member?of?the?Board?of?Management?with?responsibility?for research?and?technology,?predicts?the?fuel?cell?will?be?introduced?into?vehicles?in?several?stages?‘In 2002,?the?company?will?deliver?the?first?city?buses?with?fuel?cells,?followed?in?2004?by?the?first passenger?cars.’ The?electric?drive?vehicle?has?thus?moved?out?of?the?‘back?room’?of?automotive?research?into?a ‘design?for?production’?phase?and?already?hybrid?drive?systems?(IC?engine?plus?electric?drive) have?entered?series?production?from?major?Japanese?manufacturers.?In?the?USA,?General?Motors has?also?made?very?substantial?investments?with?the?same?objective.?There?is?also?very?considerable interest?throughout?the?world?by?smaller?high?technology?companies?who?can?use?their?knowledge base?to?successfully?enter?the?automotive?market?with?innovative?and?specialist?application solutions.?This?last?group?will?have?much?benefit?from?this?book,?which?covers?automotive?structure, and?system?design?for?ultra?light?vehicles?that?can?extend?the?range?of?electric?propulsion,?as?well as?electric?drive?technology?and?EV?layouts?for?its?main?stream?educational?readership. NECAR5?fuel?cell?driven?car. Preface?a.pm6 21?04?01,?1:53?PM 8Preface ix About?the?authors Electro?technology?author? Ron?Hodkinson?is?very?actively?involved?in?the?current?value engineering?of?automotive?fuel?cell?drive?systems?through?his?company?Fuel?Cell?Control?Ltd?and is?particularly?well?placed?to?provide?the?basic?electro?technology?half?of?this?work.?He?obtained his?first?degree?in?electrical?engineering?(power?and?telecommunications)?from?the?Barking?campus, of?what?is?now?the?University?of?East?London,?on?a?four?year?sandwich?course?with?Plessey.?At?the end?of?the?company’s?TSR2?programme?he?moved?on?to?Brentford?Electric?in?Sussex?where?he was?seconded?on?contract?to?CERN?in?Switzerland?to?work?on?particle?accelerator?magnetic?power supplies?of?up?to?9?MW.?He?returned?to?England?in?1972?to?take?a?master’s?degree?at?Sussex University,?after?which?he?became?Head?of?R?IAD?electric?and?hybrid?vehicles; the?SAIC?fuel?cell?bus?operating?in?California?and?Zetec?taxicabs?and?vans. Co?author? John?Fenton?is?a?technology?journalist?who?has?plotted?the?recent?course?in?EV design?and?layout,?including?hybrid?drive?vehicles,?in?the?second?half?of?the?book,?which?also includes?his?chapters?on?structure?and?systems?design?from?his?earlier?industrial?experience.?He?is an?engineering?graduate?of?the?Manchester?University?Science?Faculty?and?became?a?member?of the?first?year’s?intake?of?Graduate?Apprentices?at?General?Motors’?UK?Vauxhall?subsidiary.?He later?worked?as?a?chassis?systems?layout?draughtsman?with?the?company?before?moving?to automotive?consultants?ERA?as?a?chassis?systems?development?engineer,?helping?to?develop?the innovative?mobile?tyre?and?suspension?test?rig?devised?by?David?Hodkin,?and?working?on?running? gear?systems?for?the?Project?378?car?design?project?for?BMC.?With?ERA ’s?subsequent?specialization on?engine?systems,?as?a?result?of?the?Solex?acquisition,?he?joined?the?Transport?Division?of?Unilever, Preface?a.pm6 21?04?01,?1:53?PM 9x Preface working?with?the?Technical?Manager?on?the?development?of?monocoque?sandwich?construction refrigerated?container?bodies?and?bulk?carriers?for?ground?nut?meal?and?shortening?fat.?He?was sponsored?by?the?company?on?the?first?postgraduate?automotive?engineering?degree?course?at Cranfield?where?lightweight?sandwich?construction?monocoque?vehicle?bodies?was?his?thesis subject.?He?changed?course?to?technology?journalism?after?graduating?and?joined?the?newly?founded journal? Automotive?Design?Engineering? (ADE)?as?its?first?technical?editor,?and?subsequently?editor. A?decade?later?he?became?a?senior?lecturer?on?the?newly?founded?undergraduate?V ehicle?Engineering degree?course?at?what?is?now?Hertfordshire?University?and?helped?to?set?up?the?design?teaching courses?in?body?structure?and?chassis?systems.?He?returned?to?industry?for?a?short?period,?as?a technology?communicator,?first?Product?Affairs?Manager?for?Leyland?Truck?and?Bus,?then?technical copywriter?and?sales?engineer?(special?vehicle?operations).?With?the?mer ging?of? ADE?with?the Institution?of?Mechanical?Engineers? JAE?journal?he?had?the?opportunity?to?move?back?to?publishing and?subsequently?edited?the?combined?journal? Automotive?Engineer ,?for?fifteen?years,?prior?to?its recent?transformation?into?an?international?auto?industry?magazine. x About?the?authors Preface?a.pm6 21?04?01,?1:53?PM 10Introduction xi Introduction 0.1 Preface This?book?differs?from?other?automotive?engineering?texts?in?that?it?covers?a?technology?that?is?still very?much?in?the?emerging?stages,?and?will?be?particularly?valuable?for?design?courses,?and?projects, within?engineering?degree?studies.?Whereas?other?works?cover?established?automotive?disciplines, this?book?focuses?on?the?design?stages,?still?in?process?for?electric?vehicles,?and?thus?draws?on?a somewhat?tentative?source?of?references?rather?than?a?list?of?the?known?major?works?in?the?subject. The?choice?of?design?theory?is?also?somewhat?selective,?coming?from?the?considerable?volume?of works?the?disciplines?of?which?are?combining?to?make?the?production?electric?vehicle?possible. 0.1.1 BIBLIOGRAPHIC?SOURCES Electrical?propulsion?systems?date?back?virtually?to?the?time?of?Faraday?and?a?substantial?body?of literature?exists?in?the?library?of?the?Institution?of?Electrical?Engineers?from?which?it?is?safe?only?to consider?a?small?amount?in?relation?to?current?road?vehicle?developments.?Similarly?a?considerable quantity?of?works?are?available?on?aerospace?structural?design?which?can?be?found?in?the?library?of the?Royal?Aeronautical?Society,?and?on?automotive?systems?developments?within?the?library?of the?Institution?of?Mechanical?Engineers.?With?the?massive?recent?step?changes?in?capital?investment, first?in?the?build?up?to?battery?electric?vehicle?development,?then?in?the?switch?to?hybrid?drive engineering,?and?finally?the?move?to?fuel?cell?development?–?it?would?be?dangerous?to?predict?an established?EV?technology?at?this?stage. A?good?deal?of?further?reading?has?been?added?to?the?bibliographies?of?references?at?the?ends?of each?chapter.?This?is?intended?to?be?a?source?of?publications?that?might?help?readers?look?for?wider background,?while?examining?the?changes?of?direction?that?EV?designers?are?making?at?this?formative stage?of?the?industry.?The?final?chapter?also?lists?publications?which?seem?to?be?likely?sources?

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