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美国电动车标准化路线图2.0版(英文).pdf

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美国 电动车 标准化 路线图 20 英文
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亚博足彩开户 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP ?FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES VERSION 2.0 MAY 2013 Prepared by the ?Electric Vehicles Standards Panel of the ?American National Standards Institute [this page intentionally left blank] ? ANSI EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 Page 3 of 170 ?Table of Contents ?Table of Contents .................................................................................................................. 3 ?Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................. 7 ?Summary of Major Changes From Version 1.0 ...................................................................... 11 ?Executive Summary ............................................................................................................. 19 ?1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 25 ?1.1 Situational Assessment for Electric Vehicles ....................................................................... 25 ?1.2 Roadmap Goals for EVs and Charging Infrastructure ........................................................... 27 ?1.3 Roadmap Boundaries ........................................................................................................ 28 ?1.4 Roadmap Audience ........................................................................................................... 29 ?1.5 Roadmap Structure ........................................................................................................... 29 ?1.6 Definitions ........................................................................................................................ 31 ?2. Background ................................................................................................................... 33 ?2.1 How the Roadmap was Developed and Promoted .............................................................. 33 ?2.2 Entities Operating in the EV Standards Space ..................................................................... 34 ?2.2.1 U.S.-based SDOs .............................................................................................................................. 35 ?2.2.2 Non U.S.-based SDOs ...................................................................................................................... 36 ?2.2.3 U.S. Federal Government Agencies................................................................................................. 37 ?2.2.4 World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) .................................................. 38 ?2.2.5 Other Cross-Sector Initiatives ......................................................................................................... 39 ?3. Identification of Issues ................................................................................................... 43 ?3.1 Vehicle Domain ................................................................................................................. 43 ?3.1.1 Energy Storage Systems .................................................................................................................. 44 ?3.1.1.1 Power Rating Methods ................................................................................................... 44 ?3.1.1.2 Battery Safety .................................................................................................................. 44 ?3.1.1.3 Battery Testing – Performance and Durability ................................................................ 44 ?3.1.1.4 Battery Storage, Packaging, Transport and Handling ..................................................... 45 ?3.1.1.5 Battery Recycling ............................................................................................................. 45 ?3.1.1.6 Battery Secondary Uses .................................................................................................. 46 ?3.1.1.7 Crash Tests / Safety ......................................................................................................... 46 ?3.1.2 Vehicle Components ....................................................................................................................... 47 ?3.1.2.1 Internal High Voltage Cables, On-Board Wiring, Component Ratings and ?Charging Accessories ....................................................................................................... 47 ?3.1.2.2 Vehicle Diagnostics – Emissions ...................................................................................... 47 ? ANSI EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 Page 4 of 170 ?3.1.2.3 Audible Warning Systems ............................................................................................... 47 ?3.1.3 Vehicle User Interface ..................................................................................................................... 47 ?3.1.3.1 Graphical Symbols ........................................................................................................... 48 ?3.1.3.2 Telematics – Driver Distraction ....................................................................................... 48 ?3.1.3.3 Fuel Efficiency, Emissions, and Labeling ......................................................................... 48 ?3.2 Infrastructure Domain ....................................................................................................... 48 ?3.2.1 Charging Systems ............................................................................................................................ 49 ?3.2.1.1 Wireless Charging ........................................................................................................... 49 ?3.2.1.2 Battery Swapping ............................................................................................................ 50 ?3.2.1.3 Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) ...................................................................... 50 ?3.2.1.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ............................................................................. 52 ?3.2.1.5 Vehicle as Supply ............................................................................................................. 52 ?3.2.1.6 Use of Alternative Power Sources ................................................................................... 53 ?3.2.2 Infrastructure Communications ...................................................................................................... 53 ?3.2.2.1 Communications Architecture for EV Charging .............................................................. 54 ?3.2.2.2 Communications Requirements for Various EV Charging Scenarios............................... 57 ?3.2.2.3 Communication and Measurement of EV Energy Consumption .................................... 58 ?3.2.2.4 Cyber Security and Data Privacy ..................................................................................... 59 ?3.2.2.5 Telematics Smart Grid Communications ......................................................................... 59 ?3.2.3 Infrastructure Installation ............................................................................................................... 59 ?3.2.3.1 Site Assessment / Power Capacity Assessment .............................................................. 60 ?3.2.3.2 EV Charging – Signage and Parking ................................................................................. 60 ?3.2.3.3 Charging Station Permitting ............................................................................................ 60 ?3.2.3.4 Environmental and Use Conditions ................................................................................. 61 ?3.2.3.5 Ventilation – Multiple Charging Vehicles ........................................................................ 61 ?3.2.3.6 Guarding of EVSE............................................................................................................. 61 ?3.2.3.7 Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities to EVSE .......................................................... 61 ?3.2.3.8 Cable Management ......................................................................................................... 62 ?3.2.3.9 EVSE Maintenance .......................................................................................................... 62 ?3.2.3.10 Workplace Safety ............................................................................................................ 62 ?3.3 Support Services Domain ................................................................................................... 62 ?3.3.1 Education and Training ................................................................................................................... 64 ?3.3.1.1 Electric Vehicle Emergency Shut Off – High Voltage Batteries, Power Cables, ?Disconnect Devices; Fire Suppression, Fire Fighting Tactics and Personal ?Protective Equipment ..................................................................................................... 65 ?3.3.1.2 Labeling of EVSE and Load Management Disconnects for Emergency Situations .......... 65 ?3.3.1.3 OEM Emergency Response Guides ................................................................................. 65 ?3.3.1.4 Electrical Energy Stranded in an Inoperable RESS; Battery Assessment and Safe ?Discharge Following an Emergency Event ...................................................................... 66 ?3.3.1.5 Disaster Planning / Emergency Evacuations Involving Electric Vehicles ......................... 66 ?3.3.1.6 Workforce Training ......................................................................................................... 67 ? ANSI EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 Page 5 of 170 ?4. Gap Analysis of Standards, Codes, Regulations, Conformance Programs and ?Harmonization Efforts ......................................................................................................... 69 ?4.1 Vehicle Domain ................................................................................................................. 69 ?4.1.1 Energy Storage Systems .................................................................................................................. 70 ?4.1.1.1 Power Rating Methods ................................................................................................... 70 ?4.1.1.2 Battery Safety .................................................................................................................. 70 ?4.1.1.3 Battery Testing – Performance and Durability ................................................................ 74 ?4.1.1.4 Battery Storage, Packaging, Transport and Handling ..................................................... 75 ?4.1.1.5 Battery Recycling ............................................................................................................. 78 ?4.1.1.6 Battery Secondary Uses .................................................................................................. 79 ?4.1.1.7 Crash Tests / Safety ......................................................................................................... 79 ?4.1.2 Vehicle Components ....................................................................................................................... 81 ?4.1.2.1 Internal High Voltage Cables, On-Board Wiring, Component Ratings and ?Charging Accessories ....................................................................................................... 81 ?4.1.2.2 Vehicle Diagnostics – Emissions ...................................................................................... 83 ?4.1.2.3 Audible Warning Systems ............................................................................................... 84 ?4.1.3 Vehicle User Interface ..................................................................................................................... 85 ?4.1.3.1 Graphical Symbols ........................................................................................................... 85 ?4.1.3.2 Telematics – Driver Distraction ....................................................................................... 86 ?4.1.3.3 Fuel Efficiency, Emissions and Labeling .......................................................................... 87 ?4.2 Infrastructure Domain ....................................................................................................... 88 ?4.2.1 Charging Systems ............................................................................................................................ 88 ?4.2.1.1 Wireless Charging ........................................................................................................... 88 ?4.2.1.2 Battery Swapping ............................................................................................................ 89 ?4.2.1.3 Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) ...................................................................... 90 ?4.2.1.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ........................................................................... 101 ?4.2.1.5 Vehicle as Supply ........................................................................................................... 102 ?4.2.1.6 Use of Alternative Power Sources ................................................................................. 104 ?4.2.2 Infrastructure Communications .................................................................................................... 105 ?4.2.2.1 Communications Architecture for EV Charging ............................................................ 105 ?4.2.2.2 Communications Requirements for Various EV Charging Scenarios............................. 108 ?4.2.2.3 Communication and Measurement of EV Energy Consumption .................................. 111 ?4.2.2.4 Cyber Security and Data Privacy ................................................................................... 115 ?4.2.2.5 Telematics Smart Grid Communications ....................................................................... 115 ?4.2.3 Infrastructure Installation ............................................................................................................. 116 ?4.2.3.1 Site Assessment / Power Capacity Assessment ............................................................ 116 ?4.2.3.2 EV Charging – Signage and Parking ............................................................................... 118 ?4.2.3.3 Charging Station Permitting .......................................................................................... 119 ?4.2.3.4 Environmental and Use Conditions ...............................................

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