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德国O型圈手册.pdf

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Dichtomatik O-Ring HandbookTHE DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK Dichtomatik North America 47690 East Anchor Court, Plymouth, MI 48170 TEL (734) 354-5555 FAX (734) 254-0934 Transcom–Dichtomatik 3451 West Burnsville Parkway, Burnsville, MN 55337 TEL (800) 328-2840 FAX (952) 894-1588 1-800-328-2840 Dichtomatik Nevada 1111 Mary Crest Road Suite A, Henderson, NV 89074 TEL (702) 312-2828 ?FAX (702) 312-2841 Dichtomatik Virginia 37307 East Richardson Lane, Purcellville, VA 20132 TEL (540) 338-1862 ?FAX (540) 338-1867 Nu-Seals–Dichtomatik 34 Zaca Lane, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 TEL (805) 546-9600 FAX (805) 546-0234 Dichtomatik Canada 950 Denison Street #21, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R3K5 TEL (905) 470-2266 FAX (905) 470-2055 Dichtomatik de Mexico Privada de los Misterios No. 161, Querétaro, Qro. 7620, México TEL (442) 2-23-82-37 FAX (442) 2-13-52-24 www.dichtomatik.us Editor: Dan Visscher Assistant Editor: Matt Gadlage Design: William Leidenthal Special thanks to the Dichtomatik associates and customers who offered their assistance and ?expertise in the creation of this handbook.DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 2 LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT Dear Customers and Friends of Dichtomatik, In our continuous effort to improve our service to you, we have created this O-Ring Handbook. There are many unique features that can help you select the right Dichtomatik o-ring seal for your application: Size listings for the seven dominant international o-ring standards. ?A master size list sorted by cross-section and inside diameter for locating a particular size, with a ?cross reference to the size standard. Chemical compatibility guide with more than 1,100 chemical media and 15 elastomer groups. A pictorial o-ring trouble-shooting guide, and many more features. With our new family members Transcom–Dichtomatik and Nu-Seals–Dichtomatik we have organized ?Dichtomatik North America to become your true One-Stop Shop for sealing products. We now offer a broad ?variety of products including: Oil Seals O-Rings Hydraulic and Fluid Power Seals Custom Molded Seals and Parts Please see Section 8 of this handbook for more details, or call one of our service centers for information on our competitively priced quality sealing products. We will continue to work hard in serving you in line with our motto “Any Seal. Any Time.” Kind Regards, Jorg Schneewind President Please contact Matt Gadlage for additional copies of this handbook, for Dichtomatik o-ring price lists or to offer comments and suggestions. ?Call Matt at (734) 354-5552 (9 am–5 pm ET, M–F) or email: mgadlage@dichtomatik.usDICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS HANDBOOK CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 What is an o-ring? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 What is an o-ring seal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 O-ring seal types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Handbook organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 2. O-RING GLAND DESIGN GUIDELINES . . . . . 11 Seal types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Gland dimension calculations . . . . . . . . . . . .13 O-ring dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Selecting an o-ring cross-section . . . . . . . . . . .14 ID/OD interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Reduction in cross-section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Compression squeeze & compression ratio . . .16 Gland ?ll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Extrusion gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Back-up rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Additional groove details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3. GLOBAL O-RING SIZE REFERENCE . . . . . . . 23 Introduction to o-ring size standards . . . . . . . . 24 AS568 size listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 ISO 3601 size listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 DIN 3771 size listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 BS 4518 size listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 BS 1806 size listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 JIS B 2401 size listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 NF T47-501 size listings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Master listing of standard sizes . . . . . . . . . . 116 4. O-RING SEALING ELASTOMERS . . . . . . . 131 Elastomer basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Elastomer types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Standard Dichtomatik o-ring elastomers . . . . 133 Elastomer type details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 O-ring lubrication options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Industrial approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Elastomer testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 ASTM D2000 primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 5. CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY GUIDE . . . . . . 141 6. O-RING QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . 177 Manufacturing quality systems . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Surface quality standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 O-ring shelf life guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 7. O-RING TROUBLESHOOTING & ?FAILURE ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Extrusion or nibbling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Over-compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Heat hardening/thermal degradation . . . . . .189 Spiral failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chemical degradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Explosive decompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Abrasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Plasticizer extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Installation damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Weathering/ozone cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 8. DICHTOMATIK NORTH AMERICA ?PRODUCT OFFERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 O-rings & related sealing products . . . . . . . . 196 Fluid power sealing products . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Radial shaft seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Custom molded products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Other products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 9. TECHNICAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Unit conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Common sealing industry abbreviations . . . . 214 Glossary of o-ring related terms . . . . . . . . . . 215DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 4 THE DICHTOMATIK FAMILY DICHTOMATIK NORTH AMERICA Dichtomatik North America Plymouth, Michigan Dichtomatik N.A. Headquarters Automotive Sales Of?ce Dichtomatik Canada Markham, Ontario All Product Lines Regionally Focused ?Inventory Transcom–Dichtomatik Burnsville, Minnesota Oil Seals Dichtomatik Purcellville, Virginia O-Rings–East Dichtomatik de Mexico Querétaro, Mexico All Product Lines Complete Inventory Dichtomatik Henderson, Nevada Spliced O-Rings Cord Nu-Seals–Dichtomatik San Luis Obispo, California Fluid Power Seals Custom Molded Seals O-Rings–West Oil Seals OUR MISSION… Become the preferred One-Stop Shop for sealing products in North America by offering the broadest line of ?quality products combined with the best service and availability in the industry. OUR GOAL… Any Seal. Any Time.DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 5 USING THE QUICK INDEX To quickly access certain reference sections in the Dichtomatik O-Ring Handbook, locate the section title below, fan the pages of the handbook and turn to the section with edge markings that line up with the section title. The AS568 Sizes, Master Size List and Chemical Compatibility Guide sections are indicated in red so that they can be found even more easily. O-Ring Gland Design AS568 Sizes ISO 3601 Sizes DIN 3771 Sizes BS 4518 Sizes BS 1806 Sizes JIS B 2401 Sizes NF T47-501 Sizes Master Size List Sealing Elastomers Chemical Compatibility Guide Surface Quality Standards O-Ring Troubleshooting Unit Conversions THE O-RING HANDBOOK QUICK INDEXDICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 6SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE O-RING HANDBOOK DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK INTRODUCTION TO THE O-RING HANDBOOK 1 What Is an O-Ring? What Is an O-Ring Seal? O-Ring Seal Types Organization of the Dichtomatik O-Ring Handbook DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 8 WHAT IS AN O-RING? From a sealing standpoint, two characteristics make an o-ring an o-ring—the shape and the material of construction. The shape is a circular torus or doughnut-shaped ring (see ?diagram at right). As can be seen, only two of the three ?primary dimensions—the inner diameter (ID), the outer diameter (OD) and the cross-section (CS)—are required to completely specify the size of an o-ring. The materials used in o-rings for sealing are elastomers. Elastomers are synthetic or natural materials with resilience or memory suf?cient to return to their original shape after a major or minor distortion. Other materials, such as PTFE, nylon or even metal, can be fashioned into the circular torus shape, but for the purposes of this book, the term o-ring will only be used to describe an elastomeric circular torus. WHAT IS AN O-RING SEAL? An o-ring seal has two basic components: The o-ring The enclosed space that both compresses and contains the o-ring The compression (or more accurately the deformation) of the ?o-ring provides part of the sealing function. An additional ?sealing function is realized when the o-ring is activated by the pressure of the gas or liquid that the o-ring serves to contain. The containment ensures that the sealing function is maintained by keeping the o-ring where it needs to be. INTRODUCTION TO THE DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK OD CS ID O-Ring Sealing Compression Pressure ActivationDICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 9 O-RING SEAL TYPES The majority of o-ring seals can be categorized into one of the three following physical arrangements. Male Gland Seal Female Gland Seal Face Seal Other arrangements, such as triangular seals (see diagram below) or variations on the above three arrangements with dovetail or half-dovetail grooves, are encountered but are much less common. For technical assistance with any of these alternate arrangements, please contact Dichtomatik North America. Triangular Seal For male gland seals, an o-ring is installed in a groove that is machined into the OD of the “piston.” The piston and the installed o-ring are then inserted into the bore. The o-ring seals radially. For face seals, an o-ring is installed in a groove that is machined into a ?at face around a hole. A second ?at face then seals against the o-ring. The o-ring seals axially. With female gland seals, an o-ring is ?rst installed into a groove that is machined into the ID of the bore. The rod is then inserted into the bore through the o-ring. ?The o-ring seals radially.DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK 10 HOW THIS HANDBOOK IS ORGANIZED INTRODUCTION TO THE DICHTOMATIK O-RING HANDBOOK The remainder of this handbook is divided into these eight sections: Section 2—O-Ring Gland Design Guidelines Section Two covers basic o-ring seal design guidelines for male gland, female gland and face o-ring seals. This ?section should serve as an excellent starting point for adding an o-ring seal to an application. Section 3—Global O-Ring Size Reference Guide Inch and metric dimensions with tolerances for most major, global o-ring size standards can be found in Section Three. O-rings can be supplied in most of these sizes without a tooling charge. Dichtomatik is also tooled on a large ?number of non-standard sizes and can certainly make a tool for any size that is required, usually for a very modest tooling charge. Section 4—O-Ring Sealing Elastomers This section offers a very brief introduction to the world of sealing elastomers. Volumes have been written on ?elastomers and new materials are constantly being developed. This section is intended to cover just the basics. For further assistance in selecting an elastomer for your application, please contact Dichtomatik North America. Section 5—Chemical Compatibility Guide Section Five offers ratings for several elastomer families when in contact with the listed chemicals and ?uids. There is sometimes a great deal of variation in terms of chemical compatibility within an elastomer family, but this guide will serve as a good starting point. Section 6—Quality Assurance The quality assurance section deals mostly with surface quality defect standards for o-rings. It also touches on manu- facturing quality systems and storage and shelf life recommendations. Section 7—Troubleshooting & Failure Analysis Occasionally, problems with an o-ring seal will arise. Section Seven provides an overview of the most common o-ring failure modes and offers possible causes and solutions for each. Section 8—Other Related Products Dichtomatik North America can supply a great deal more than o-rings. Section Eight provides an overview of most of the other product lines that are available. Make Dichtomatik your One-Stop Shop for all of your sealing needs. Section 9—Technical Reference Section Nine contains several technical resources that may be useful when dealing with sealing applications. IMPORTANT NOTE: The information contained in this guide has been accumulated from several industry publications and authorities. At the time of publication all data was accurate to the best of our knowledge. It is the customer’s responsibility to verify the accuracy and applicability of all data relevant to the particular application. Additionally, we strongly recommend that the selected seal be tested rigorously in the actual application prior to any production use.

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