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Standard_Handbook_for_Mechanical_Engineers 6 机械工程师标准手册6 工程材料.pdf

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STANDARD_HANDBOOK_FOR_MECHANICAL_ENGINEERS 机械工程师 标准 手册 工程材料
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Section 6 Materials of Engineering BY EUGENE A. AVALLONE Consulting Engineer; Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus, The City College of The City University of New York HAROLD W. PAXTON United States Steel Professor Emeritus, Carnegie Mellon University JAMES D. REDMOND Principal, Technical Marketing Resources, Inc. MALCOLM BLAIR Technical and Research Director, Steel Founders Society of America ROBERT E. EPPICH Vice President, Technology, American Foundry Society L. D. KUNSMAN Late Fellow Engineer, Research Labs, Westinghouse Electric Corp. C. L. CARLSON Late Fellow Engineer, Research Labs, Westinghouse Electric Corp. J. RANDOLPH KISSEL President, The TGB Partnership LARRY F. WIESERMAN Senior Technical Supervisor, ALCOA RICHARD L. BRAZILL Technology Specialist, ALCOA FRANK E. GOODWIN Executive Vice President, ILZRO, Inc. DON GRAHAM Manager, Turning Products, Carboloy, Inc. ARTHUR COHEN Formerly Manager, Standards and Safety Engineering, Copper Development Assn. JOHN H. TUNDERMANN Formerly Vice President, Research and Technology, INCO International, Inc. JAMES D. SHEAROUSE, III Late Senior Development Engineer, The Dow Chemical Co. PETER K. JOHNSON Director, Marketing and Public Relations, Metal Powder Industries Federation JOHN R. SCHLEY Manager, Technical Marketing, RMI Titanium Co. ROBERT D. BARTHOLOMEW Associate, Sheppard T. Powell Associates, LLC DAVID A. SHIFLER MERA Metallurgical Services DAVID W. GREEN Supervisory Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab, USDA ROLAND HERNANDEZ Research Engineer, Forest Products Lab, USDA JOSEPH F. MURPHY Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab, USDA ROBERT J. ROSS Supervisory Research General Engineer, Forest Products Lab, USDA WILLIAM T. SIMPSON Research Forest Products Technologist, Forest Products Lab, USDA ANTON TENWOLDE Supervisory Research Physicist, Forest Products Lab, USDA ROBERT H. WHITE Supervisory Wood Scientist, Forest Products Lab, USDA STAN LEBOW Research Forest Products Technologist, Forest Products Lab, USDA ALI M. SADEGH Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The City College of The City University of New York WILLIAM L. GAMBLE Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ARNOLD S. VERNICK Formerly Associate, Geraghty ?METALLIC SPECIALITIES Introduction (BY L. D. KUNSMAN AND C. L. CARLSON, Amended ?by Staff) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46 Aluminum and Its Alloys (BY J. RANDOLPH KISSELL, LARRY F. WIESERMAN, AND RICHARD L. BRAZILL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-49 Bearing Metals (BY FRANK E. GOODWIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-58 Cemented Carbides (BY DON GRAHAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-58 Copper and Copper Alloys (BY ARTHUR COHEN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-62 Jewelry Metals (Staff Contribution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-71 Low-Melting-Point Metals and Alloys (BY FRANK E. GOODWIN) . . . . . . . . . 6-72 Metals and Alloys for Use at Elevated Temperatures (BY JOHN H. TUNDERMANN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-73 Metals and Alloys for Nuclear Energy Applications (BY L. D. KUNSMAN AND C. L. CARLSON; Amended by staff) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-79 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys (BY JAMES D. SHEAROUSE, III) . . . . . . . 6-82 Powdered Metals (BY PETER K. JOHNSON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-83 Nickel and Nickel Alloys (BY JOHN H. TUNDERMANN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-86 Titanium and Zirconium (BY JOHN R. SCHLEY). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-88 Zinc and Zinc Alloys (BY FRANK E. GOODWIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-90 6.5 CORROSION by Robert D. Bartholomew and David A. Shifler Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-92 Thermodynamics of Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-93 Corrosion Kinetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-94 Factors Influencing Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-95 Forms of Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-97 Corrosion Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-102 Corrosion Protection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-103 Corrosion in Industrial and Power Plant Steam-Generating Systems . . . . . 6-105 Corrosion in Heating and Cooling Water Systems and Cooling Towers . . . 6-109 Corrosion in the Chemical Process Industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-110 6.6 PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS Revised by Staff Paint Ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-111 Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-111 Other Protective and Decorative Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-113 Varnish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-114 Lacquer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-115 6.7 WOOD by Staff, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. Prepared under the direction of David W. Green Composition, Structure, and Nomenclature (BY DA VID W. GREEN) . . . . . . . 6-115 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Clear Wood (BY DA VID W. GREEN, ROBERT WHITE, ANTON TENWOLDE, WILLIAM SIMPSON, JOSEPH MURPHY, AND ROBERT ROSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-116 Properties of Lumber Products (BY ROLAND HERNANDEZ AND DAV I D W. GREEN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-121 Properties of Structural Panel Products (BY ROLAND HERNANDEZ) . . . . . . . 6-127 Durability of Wood in Construction (BY STA N LEBOW AND ROBERT WHITE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-129 Commercial Lumber Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-131 6.8 NONMETALLIC MATERIALS by Ali M. Sadegh Abrasives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-131 Adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-133 Brick, Block, and Tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-134 Ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-139 Cleansing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-140 Cordage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-141 Electrical Insulating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-141 Fibers and Fabrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-143 Freezing Preventives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-144 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-145 Natural Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-146 Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-147 Roofing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-148 Rubber and Rubberlike Materials (Elastomers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-150 Solvents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-151 Thermal Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-153 Silicones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-154 Refractories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-154 Sealants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-158 6.9 CEMENT, MORTAR, AND CONCRETE by William L. Gamble Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-162 Lime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-163 Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-163 Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-164 Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-164 Mortars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-165 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-166 6.10 WATER by Arnold S. Vernick and Amended by Staff Water Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-171 Measurements and Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-172 Industrial Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-174 Water Pollution Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-175 Water Desalination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-176 6.11 LUBRICANTS AND LUBRICATION by Glenn E. Asauskas Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-180 Liquid Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-180 Lubrication Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Lubricant Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Viscosity Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Other Physical and Chemical Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-182 Greases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-183 Solid Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-184 Lubrication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-185 Lubrication of Specific Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-185 6.12 PLASTICS Staff Contribution General Overview of Plastics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-189 Raw Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-189 Primary Fabrication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-205 Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-205 Adhesives, Assembly, and Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-205 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-205 6.13 FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS by Stephen R. Swanson Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-206 Typical Advanced Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-206 Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-206 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-206 Material Forms and Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-207 Design and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-207 6-2 MATERIALS OF ENGINEERINGREFERENCES: “International Critical Tables,” McGraw-Hill. “Smithsonian Physical Tables,” Smithsonian Institution. Landolt, “Landolt-B?rnstein, Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik,” Springer. “Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,” Chemical Rubber Co. “Book of ASTM Standards,” ASTM. “ASHRAE Refrigeration Data Book,” ASHRAE. Brady, “Materials Handbook,” McGraw-Hill. Mantell, “Engineering Materials Handbook,” McGraw-Hill. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Butterworth Scientific Publications. “U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” Government Printing Office. Tables of Thermodynamic Properties of Gases, NIST Circ. 564, ASME Steam Tables. Thermodynamic properties of a variety of other specific materials are listed also in Secs. 4.1, 4.2, and 9.8. Sonic properties of several materi- als are listed in Sec. 12.6. CHEMISTRY Every elementary substance is made up of exceedingly small particles called atoms which are all alike and which cannot be further subdivided or broken up by chemical processes. It will be noted that this statement is virtually a definition of the term elementary substance and a limitation of the term chemical process. There are as many different classes or families of atoms as there are chemical elements. See Table 6.1.1. ?Two or more atoms, either of the same kind or of different kinds, are, in the case of most elements, capable of uniting with one another to form a higher order of distinct particles called molecules. If the mole- cules or atoms of which any given material is composed are all exactly alike, the material is a pure substance. If they are not all alike, the mate- rial is a mixture. If the atoms which compose the molecules of any pure substances are all of the same kind, the substance is, as already stated, an elementary substance. If the atoms which compose the molecules of a pure chemical substance are not all of the same kind, the substance is a compound substance. The atoms are to be considered as the smallest particles which occur separately in the structure of molecules of either compound or elementary substances, so far as can be determined by ordinary chemi- cal analysis. The molecule of an element consists of a definite (usually small) number of its atoms. The molecule of a compound consists of one or mo

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