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10708-Article Text PDF-26337-3-10-20170621.pdf

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168 Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng. Zs. Szalay, á. Nyerges, Z. Hamar, M. Hesz Abstract Today’s vehicles already have several driver assistant systems and in the near future highly automated vehicles will also appear in road transport. Higher automation levels rely on disruptive technologies that cannot be tested and approved in the former way. To be able to guarantee future road safety also disruptive testing and validation methods are required. The complexity of the systems and the stochasticity of the potential traffic situations demand new approaches with different test- ing levels and approval layers. Since there are no off-the-self solutions available beyond the research the authors also par- ticipate in international activities like the Gear 2030 EU level initiative. This paper will discuss the proposed new approach for connected and automated vehicle testing methodology concluding with the technical specification results for the new Hungarian automotive proving ground. Keywords Connected and Automated Vehicles, Autonomous Driving, Self-driving V ehicles, testing and validation, test track, proving ground, Gear 2030 1 Introduction Thanks to the recent revolution of science and technology, vehicles have more and more automated features or systems. Initially the main motivation was to make driving easier or more comfortable, but world megatrends have oriented the development towards to lower fuel consumption, higher traffic safety and reduced environmental impact. To reach these future objectives it is necessary to increase the level of automation of road vehicles. At the end of the day, automated vehicles are going to appear in everyday transpor- tation. Automated vehicles will overcome today’s cars in effi- ciency, comfort, safety, velocity and traffic density. Connected cars have another advantage: with intelligent traffic control systems, traffic jams can be decreased or even avoided. Driving a road vehicle is a very complex controlling task, so substituting the human driver with a computer is a real chal- lenge also from the technical side. Due to the new components and increased in-vehicle system complexity, vehicle testing and validation became different as earlier. Testing the vehicle, the driver-controller and the traffic situations together requires new testing methods and strategies. The aim is the same as earlier: to guarantee road safety with reliable operation of the systems. This proof needs well-prepared test and certification procedures. Mistakes should be handled with zero tolerance because it is easy to miss the trust of the society in automated technologies. There are strong efforts on an EU level towards harmonising the European vision on connected and automated vehicles for the following decades like the Gear 2030 initiative that techni- cal, legislation and financing challenges. When talking about the motivation of automated driving one of the biggest expectation is the radical reduction of the accident number and severity, since 94% of the current traffic accidents can be traced back to the human drivers (Tettamanti et al., 2016). The penetration of automated vehicles will definitely be gradual, so there will always be “conventional vehicles” around. But we can have an estimate of the future potential in automated vehicle business based on Clifford Winston’s 1 Department of Automotive Vehicle Technology, Faculty of Transportation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics H-1521 Budapest, P.O.B. 91, Hungary 2 Automotive Proving Ground Zala, H-8900 Zalaegerszeg, P.O.B. 91, Hungary * Corresponding author, e-mail: adam.nyerges@gjt.bme.hu 45(3), pp. 168-174, 2017 https://doi.org/10.3311/PPtr.10708 Creative Commons Attribution b research article P P Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering Technical Specification Methodology for an Automotive Proving Ground Dedicated to Connected and Automated Vehicles Zsolt Szalay 1 , ádám Nyerges 1* , Zoltán Hamar 2 , Mátyás Hesz 1 Received 06 March 2017; accepted 18 March 2017169 Technical Specification Methodology 2017 45 3 calculations, where he said that the rolling-out of the automated vehicles will result in an economic profit around 200 billion USD per year in the US (Winston, 2016). This paper is created by the framework of RECAR program, which is a project to facilitate the development of connected and automated vehicles. The aim is to cooperate with the auto- motive organisation units (companies, research centres, edu- cational institutes and national authorities), learning by doing researches and to bring the new knowledge into education. Instead of connected and automated vehicles there are also a few expressions like autonomous vehicles and self-driving cars. We use the phrase “connected and automated vehicles” as we feel it the most accurate. 2 Vehicle testing and validation To analyse and compare the testing possibilities of conven- tional and autonomous road vehicles, the control loop is a good choice. In a conventional vehicle the controller is the human driver. In vehicles with higher SAE levels (SAE International, 2014), the autonomous controller has bigger tasks in vehicle control. The different control loops present the layers between the systems. During vehicle testing these layers and systems has to be tested, and they define the requirements for a labora- tory or for a test track. The purpose of the testing process can be classified by dif- ferent aspects: - Component or system operability or cooperability. - Reliability. - Durability. - Security (cyber security). - Tests in deterministic or stochastic situations. - Data managing, privacy protection. - Insurance and liability aspects. 2.1 “Conventional” vehicle testing and validation A conventional vehicle has three main subsystems: the human driver, the vehicle in the environment and the inter- face between them. Vehicle manufacturers typically test the behaviour of the vehicle in various environments and traffic situations. Test cases are usually focused on the dynamic prop- erties of vehicles. The target is defined by the requirements of the users for example better handling. The interface between the human driver and the vehicle has two directions. The first is the perception of the vehicle’s behaviour. It has three ways: visual, acoustic and haptic. The other direction is the human driver’s actuation in the movement of the vehicle. In these layers the better handling is also an advantage. Testing the driving skills in conventional vehicles has not got big emphasis. It is only important for diving licenses and in other special cases. Vehicles with driver assistant systems have more layers and systems, these elements need new test methods. The appearance of these systems made necessary the adaptation of software test methods in the automotive industry. Fig. 1 Control loop of a conventional vehicle 2.2 Connected and automated vehicle testing and validation The vehicle control task which earlier has been done by the human driver is very complex, but it also has a big develop- ment potential. The appearance of connected and automated vehicles changes the testing methods. An SAE level 5 automated vehi- cle does not need a human driver at all, he/she becomes an additional passenger. Due to this change, the handling of the vehicle will not be as much important as earlier. As it was mentioned in above, an important motivation of the development of connected and automated vehicles is to achieve better safety in road transportation. The tests focus on the reliability of the autonomous controller which is partially an active safety system in this case. Testing the driving assis- tant systems or the autonomous driver is similar to test a human driver in a conventional vehicle. But proving that a computer is more reliable than a human driver is a difficult task and it generates moral questions too. Fig. 2 Control loop of a driver assisted vehicle Fig. 3 Control loop of an automated vehicle The control loops can also help to present the components and the interfaces which should be tested. This can be seen on Fig. 2 with driving assistant systems and on Fig. 3 about a fully automated vehicle.170 Period. Polytech. Transp. Eng. Zs. Szalay, á. Nyerges, Z. Hamar, M. Hesz The components and interfaces: - Vehicle and the environment: this is the area of the con- ventional vehicle tests. - Environmental perception: the sensors of the vehicle which observe or measure the vehicle dynamics, the tra- jectory of the vehicle, the road, the other road users, the traffic, the objects around the vehicle and other environ- mental conditions. - Controllers of driver assistant or autonomous systems: these components are software (with their hardware units). - Actuators, which drive the vehicle. - C2X communication systems in connected vehicles. The trajectory of the vehicle influenced or controlled by software which can communicate to other vehicles through dif- ferent network systems. This architecture reveals new risks in vehicles like software bugs, data privacy or cyber security. To cover these risks vehicles require fail safe systems and pro- tected communication networks. Testing and validation proce- dures should prove the safety of all these components. 3 Challenges in connected and automated vehicle testing and validation Concerning the challenges of connected and automated vehi- cle testing one has to mention also the necessity of the period- ical technical inspections (PTI), but we state that in this paper we focus on the testing requirements of the type approval. There are various challenges for testing connected and automated vehicles (CA Vs) depending on the use-cases, functions and selected automation levels (SAE levels). As a consequence, the testing and validation tasks should also be organised in a similar manner. The challenges not only reflect the vehicles itself but since CA Vs are part of the traffic infra- structure, it is still unclear now how to design, develop and deploy the corresponding testing infrastructure for higher lev- els of automated driving. Furthermore, a competitive proving ground has to have the capabilities not just to test, but certify and validate automated driving functions in a reproducible and efficient way. It is still a question where are the limits of the OEM self certification and where should there be an indepen- dent organization come into the picture. It is important to men- tion that an independent organization cannot certify a function without having worked together with the developers from an early phase. Another aspect of testing is that almost everybody is aware of the importance of vehicle cyber security, but there is still a lot to do in determining how to secure connected vehicles from manipulation and prevent misuse to guarantee safety. The impact of digitalised mobility solutions, to maximise user experience in the car and the connected vehicles also represent a potential threat for cyber attacks. In automotive development the optimal utilization of the resources has high importance. In component or system testing using just the necessary resources is a financial requirement. Therefore there are different testing levels are required by con- nected and automated vehicles: - Simulation. - Laboratory. - Test track/proving ground. - Limited/controlled public road. - Public road. Fig. 4 AD Vehicle Testing Large et al., 2016; Bartels et al., 2016). During the simulation of the different sensors of automated vehicles it is important to analyse the different operating con- ditions which affect the reliability of the environment percep- tion. Every type of sensor has weaknesses, for example the weather condition has a strong effect on the visual capability of the video based sensors. From another aspect, disturbances can also be simulated by region dependent road types or traffic signs too. 3.2 Laboratory tests The operation of components and systems can be analysed in laboratory tests. Apart from the operation, it is also import- ant to test reliability, durability and cyber security. Laboratory tests lead to much more relevant information of these proper- ties than simulations. In our approach laboratory types for dedicated automotive testing can be categorised as follows: - Technology research laboratory, where the basic research is carried out. The enhancement of existing and the development of new systems for CA Vs, it is important to test the basic operation principals, for example the wave propagation for RADAR technology. The technology in this sense can be classified as sensors, signal process- ing and actuators. These laboratories required only gen- eral equipment. New communication technologies, like Galileo or 5G, make this type of laboratory very import- ant today. - Component analysis laboratory, where a vehicle specific function can be tested. An example is a laboratory sta- tion, where the video based environment perception can be analysed. In this type of laboratory the same products from different manufacturers can be analysed and com- pared, and it is possible to do benchmark analyse. The challenge is to simulate the missing environmental con- ditions. This can be performed by real equipment or by digital signals. This type of laboratory is also called HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) labs. - System integration laboratory, where the cooperation can be tested between different systems. It is the half-way between the HIL and the VIL (vehicle-in-the-loop) tests. The complexity is higher than a single component test lab and it generally requires complex network systems of the laboratory station (Aradi et al., 2014).
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