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JIT Implementation Manual - 4.pdf

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JIT IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL
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JIT Implementation Manual The Complete Guide to Just-in-Time Manufacturing Second Edition Volume 4JIT Implementation Manual Leveling – Changeover and Quality Assurance The Complete Guide to Just-in-Time Manufacturing Second Edition Volume 4 HIROYUKI HIRANOOriginally published as Jyasuto in taimu seisan kakumei shido manyuaru copyright ? 1989 by JIT Management Laboratory Company, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. English translation copyright ? 1990, 2009 Productivity Press. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 ? 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-9028-4 (Softcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation with- out intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.comv Contents Volume 1 1 Production Management and JIT Production Management ...... 1 Approach to Production Management .................................................. 3 Overview of the JIT Production System ............................................... 7 Introduction of the JIT Production System ..........................................12 2 Destroying Factory Myths: A Revolutionary Approach ........... 35 Relations among Sales Price, Cost, and Profit......................................35 Ten Arguments against the JIT Production Revolution ........................40 Approach to Production as a Whole ...................................................44 Volume 2 3 “Wastology”: The Total Elimination of Waste .........................145 Why Does Waste Occur? ...................................................................146 Types of Waste ................................................................................. 151 How to Discover Waste ....................................................................179 How to Remove Waste .....................................................................198 Secrets for Not Creating Waste ..........................................................226 4 The “5S” Approach .................................................................237 What Are the 5S’s? ............................................................................237 Red Tags and Signboards: Proper Arrangement and Orderliness Made Visible ..................................................................265 The Red Tag Strategy for Visual Control ...........................................268 The Signboard Strategy: Visual Orderliness ......................................293 Orderliness Applied to Jigs and Tools ...............................................307vi ? Contents Volume 3 5 Flow Production .....................................................................321 Why Inventory Is Bad .......................................................................321 What Is Flow Production? .................................................................328 Flow Production within and between Factories ................................332 6 Multi-Process Operations ...................................................... 387 Multi-Process Operations: A Wellspring for Humanity on the Job .....387 The Difference between Horizontal Multi-Unit Operations and Vertical Multi-Process Operations .....................................................388 Questions and Key Points about Multi-Process Operations ...............393 Precautions and Procedures for Developing Multi-Process Operations ........................................................................................404 7 Labor Cost Reduction .............................................................415 What Is Labor Cost Reduction? .........................................................415 Labor Cost Reduction Steps ..............................................................419 Points for Achieving Labor Cost Reduction .......................................422 Visible Labor Cost Reduction ............................................................432 8 Kanban ................................................................................. 435 Differences between the Kanban System and Conventional Systems ...435 Functions and Rules of Kanban .......................................................440 How to Determine the Variety and Quantity of Kanban ..................442 Administration of Kanban ................................................................447 9 Visual Control ........................................................................ 453 What Is Visual Control? .....................................................................453 Case Study: Visual Orderliness (Seiton) .............................................459 Standing Signboards .........................................................................462 Andon: Illuminating Problems in the Factory ...................................464 Production Management Boards: At-a-Glance Supervision ................470 Relationship between Visual Control and Kaizen .............................471 Volume 4 10 Leveling ..................................................................................475 What Is Level Production?.................................................................475 Various Ways to Create Production Schedules ..................................477Contents ? vii Differences between Shish-Kabob Production and Level Production ....482 Leveling Techniques .........................................................................485 Realizing Production Leveling ...........................................................492 11 Changeover ............................................................................ 497 Why Is Changeover Improvement (Kaizen) Necessary? ....................497 What Is Changeover? ........................................................................498 Procedure for Changeover Improvement ..........................................500 Seven Rules for Improving Changeover ............................................532 12 Quality Assurance ................................................................. 541 Quality Assurance: The Starting Point in Building Products .............541 Structures that Help Identify Defects ................................................546 Overall Plan for Achieving Zero Defects ...........................................561 The Poka-Yoke System ......................................................................566 Poka-Yoke Case Studies for Various Defects ......................................586 How to Use Poka-Yoke and Zero Defects Checklists .........................616 Index ............................................................................................. I-1 About the Author ......................................................................... I-31 Volume 5 13 Standard Operations ............................................................. 623 Overview of Standard Operations ....................................................623 How to Establish Standard Operations .............................................628 How to Make Combination Charts and Standard Operations Charts ....630 Standard Operations and Operation Improvements ..........................638 How to Preserve Standard Operations ..............................................650 14 Jidoka: Human Automation ................................................... 655 Steps toward Jidoka ..........................................................................655 The Difference between Automation and Jidoka ..............................657 The Three Functions of Jidoka .........................................................658 Separating Workers: Separating Human Work from Machine Work ....660 Ways to Prevent Defects ...................................................................672 Extension of Jidoka to the Assembly Line .........................................676 15 Maintenance and Safety ........................................................ 683 Existing Maintenance Conditions on the Factory Floor .....................683viii ? Contents What Is Maintenance? .......................................................................684 CCO: Three Lessons in Maintenance ................................................689 Preventing Breakdowns ....................................................................683 Why Do Injuries Occur?....................................................................685 What Is Safety? ................................................................................. 688 Strategies for Zero Injuries and Zero Accidents .................................689 Volume 6 16 JIT Forms ...............................................................................711 Overall Management ........................................................................715 Waste-Related Forms ........................................................................730 5S-Related Forms ..............................................................................747 Engineering-Related Forms ...............................................................777 JIT Introduction-Related Forms .........................................................834475 10 Chapter Leveling What Is Level Production? Differences in Reducing Patterns of Product and Parts Inventories Usually, factories can effectively use a statistical inventory control method, such as the reorder point method, for han- dling products and replacement parts. Such methods are not suitable for inventories of assembly parts and other parts and materials being used in the factory. One reason for this is the different kinds of demand for these two kinds of inventory. As shown in Figure 10.1, demand for products is more or less constant, which means that product inventory levels can be Reorder point Parts inventory Product inventory Reorder point Figure 10.1 Demand Trends for Product and Parts Inventories.476 ? JIT Implementation Manual: Volume 4 expected to decline smoothly. By contrast, demand for parts is subject to sudden large orders that immediately deplete parts inventory, which is therefore more difficult to manage. The kind of statistical inventory control that works well for “steady-demand” inventories, such as product and replace- ment parts inventories, does not work as well for “sudden- demand” inventories, such as assembly parts and materials. Approach to Leveling Customers buy just what they want, just when they want it, and in just the amount they want. Overall, this tends to result in a steady demand for products, as reflected in steady ship- ments from product warehouses. If the factory can restock the warehouse just as steadily by manufacturing only what the warehouse needs, when it needs it, and in just the amount needed, we would see the same smooth trend reflected in the factory’s demand for parts and materials. However, most production schedules are drafted on the premise of lot production or, as we in JIT disparagingly call it, “shish-kabob production.” Shish-kabob production may help raise production effi- ciency in assembly lines, but there is more to a company than assembly lines. We also have to consider shish-kabob produc- tion’s impact on other corporate activities, such as sales, dis- tribution, and purchasing. Most factories also include various preassembly processes and parts processing lines. Therefore, just because shish-kabob production may suit assembly line operations does not mean it is a good approach from the perspective of the entire factory or company. Let us suppose, for example, that the managers of a factory’s final assembly line decide to boost the line’s output perfor- mance by assembling only product X this week and only product Z next week. This means that all preassembly pro- cesses that specialize in product X will be too busy this week Leveling ? 477 and will sit idle all next week. Conversely, the processes ded- icated to product Z will be idle this week and overworked next week. Obviously, these preassembly processes need to be scheduled more evenly to enable them to keep up with the assembly line’s demand, even though this means that many of the pre assembly products will have to sit as inventory until the assembly line is ready to use them. Naturally, such scheduling creates various kinds of waste, such as surplus production waste, idle time waste, conveyance waste, and inventory waste. It should be obvious enough by now that it does no good to seek improved efficiency and productivity for one section of the factory at the expense of other sec- tions. Instead, we must center our operations on customer needs and try to achieve an even level of high productivity throughout the factory, with low costs and Just-In-Time scheduling. The JIT technique for doing precisely that is called production leveling. Various Ways to Create Production Schedules How do factories go about creating production schedules? Actually, each factory’s method seems to be different, and one can gain a sense of the factory’s history by examining the particular method it uses.
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