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JIT Implementation Manual - 1.pdf

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JIT IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL
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JIT Implementation Manual The Complete Guide to Just-in-Time Manufacturing Second Edition Volume 1JIT Implementation Manual The Just-in-Time Production System The Complete Guide to Just-in-Time Manufacturing Second Edition Volume 1 HIROYUKI HIRANOOriginally published as Jyasuto in taimu seisan kakumei shido manyuaru copyright ? 1989 by JIT Management Laboratory Company, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. English translation copyright ? 1990, 2009 Productivity Press. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 ? 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-9016-1 (Softcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation with- out intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.comv Contents Publisher’s Message ....................................................................... ix Foreword to the Original English Edition ...................................... xi Introduction to the Original English Edition ...............................xiii Volume 1 1 Production Management and JIT Production Management ...... 1 Approach to Production Management .................................................. 3 Overview of the JIT Production System ............................................... 7 Introduction of the JIT Production System ..........................................12 2 Destroying Factory Myths: A Revolutionary Approach ........... 35 Relations among Sales Price, Cost, and Profit......................................35 Ten Arguments against the JIT Production Revolution ........................40 Approach to Production as a Whole ...................................................44 Index ............................................................................................. I-1 About the Author ......................................................................... I-31 Volume 2 3 “Wastology”: The Total Elimination of Waste .........................145 Why Does Waste Occur? ...................................................................146 Types of Waste ................................................................................. 151 How to Discover Waste ....................................................................179 How to Remove Waste .....................................................................198 Secrets for Not Creating Waste ..........................................................226 4 The “5S” Approach .................................................................237 What Are the 5S’s? ............................................................................237 Red Tags and Signboards: Proper Arrangement and Orderliness Made Visible ..................................................................265vi ? Contents The Red Tag Strategy for Visual Control ...........................................268 The Signboard Strategy: Visual Orderliness ......................................293 Orderliness Applied to Jigs and Tools ...............................................307 Volume 3 5 Flow Production .....................................................................321 Why Inventory Is Bad .......................................................................321 What Is Flow Production? .................................................................328 Flow Production within and between Factories ................................332 6 Multi-Process Operations ...................................................... 387 Multi-Process Operations: A Wellspring for Humanity on the Job .....387 The Difference between Horizontal Multi-Unit Operations and Vertical Multi-Process Operations .....................................................388 Questions and Key Points about Multi-Process Operations ...............393 Precautions and Procedures for Developing Multi-Process Operations ........................................................................................404 7 Labor Cost Reduction .............................................................415 What Is Labor Cost Reduction? .........................................................415 Labor Cost Reduction Steps ..............................................................419 Points for Achieving Labor Cost Reduction .......................................422 Visible Labor Cost Reduction ............................................................432 8 Kanban ................................................................................. 435 Differences between the Kanban System and Conventional Systems ...435 Functions and Rules of Kanban .......................................................440 How to Determine the Variety and Quantity of Kanban ..................442 Administration of Kanban ................................................................447 9 Visual Control ........................................................................ 453 What Is Visual Control? .....................................................................453 Case Study: Visual Orderliness (Seiton) .............................................459 Standing Signboards .........................................................................462 Andon: Illuminating Problems in the Factory ...................................464 Production Management Boards: At-a-Glance Supervision ................470 Relationship between Visual Control and Kaizen .............................471Contents ? vii Volume 4 10 Leveling ..................................................................................475 What Is Level Production?.................................................................475 Various Ways to Create Production Schedules ..................................477 Differences between Shish-Kabob Production and Level Production ....482 Leveling Techniques .........................................................................485 Realizing Production Leveling ...........................................................492 11 Changeover ............................................................................ 497 Why Is Changeover Improvement (Kaizen) Necessary? ....................497 What Is Changeover? ........................................................................498 Procedure for Changeover Improvement ..........................................500 Seven Rules for Improving Changeover ............................................532 12 Quality Assurance ................................................................. 541 Quality Assurance: The Starting Point in Building Products .............541 Structures that Help Identify Defects ................................................546 Overall Plan for Achieving Zero Defects ...........................................561 The Poka-Yoke System ......................................................................566 Poka-Yoke Case Studies for Various Defects ......................................586 How to Use Poka-Yoke and Zero Defects Checklists .........................616 Volume 5 13 Standard Operations ............................................................. 623 Overview of Standard Operations ....................................................623 How to Establish Standard Operations .............................................628 How to Make Combination Charts and Standard Operations Charts ....630 Standard Operations and Operation Improvements ..........................638 How to Preserve Standard Operations ..............................................650 14 Jidoka: Human Automation ................................................... 655 Steps toward Jidoka ..........................................................................655 The Difference between Automation and Jidoka ..............................657 The Three Functions of Jidoka .........................................................658 Separating Workers: Separating Human Work from Machine Work ....660 Ways to Prevent Defects ...................................................................672 Extension of Jidoka to the Assembly Line .........................................676viii ? Contents 15 Maintenance and Safety ........................................................ 683 Existing Maintenance Conditions on the Factory Floor .....................683 What Is Maintenance? .......................................................................684 CCO: Three Lessons in Maintenance ................................................689 Preventing Breakdowns ....................................................................683 Why Do Injuries Occur?....................................................................685 What Is Safety? ................................................................................. 688 Strategies for Zero Injuries and Zero Accidents .................................689 Volume 6 16 JIT Forms ...............................................................................711 Overall Management ........................................................................715 Waste-Related Forms ........................................................................730 5S-Related Forms ..............................................................................747 Engineering-Related Forms ...............................................................777 JIT Introduction-Related Forms .........................................................834ix Publisher’s Message Hiroyuki Hirano’s JIT Implementation Manual was first published in Japan in 1989, and Productivity Press published the English translation the follow- ing year. In his Foreword to the original English edition, Norman Bodek refers to the book as a “masterpiece,” and it has certainly stood the test of time and proven itself during the past twenty years. This was the first work of its kind to provide, in such great detail, a struc- tured approach to the implementation of what was commonly referred to as “just-in-time” manufacturing, and to cover so many of the concepts that are core to what we now call “lean manufacturing”—identification and elimina- tion of waste, visual management, the 5S’s, flow production, kanban, cellular manufacturing, leveling, quick changeover, poka-yoke, standard work, jidoka, and so much more. Mr. Hirano refers to 1989 and 1990 as pivotal years in the transformation of Japan’s industrial structure, and what better time than the economic transition we are experiencing in 2009 to re-release this classic work. The first edition, now out of print, comprised two binders in a slipcase. In this new edition, prompted by many requests from long-time users of the original volumes, we provide the same information in a more accessible format. These six paperback volumes contain all the original, unedited material from the original edition, divided into logical sections that follow the steps Mr. Hirano details for establishing a JIT production system (see Figure 1.6 in Volume 1, Chapter 1): Volume 1 Step 1 – Awareness Revolution Volume 2 Step 2 – The 5S’s for factory improvement Volume 3 Step 3 – Flow manufacturing Volume 4 Step 4 - Leveling Volume 5 Step 5 - Standardized operations Volume 6 The JIT formsx ? Publisher’s Message In addition, we have included a CD containing PDFs of all the forms in Volume 6 so readers can easily print the individual forms in multiples, or use them as models for creating custom forms. Of course, the point of the forms is to promote engagement of all team members and focus on improvement activities – not to complete them in isolation and house them in a cabinet or on a hard drive! We have also added a detailed index for the entire set of six volumes. For your convenience, the complete index is included in each volume. We hope that students, those interested in the roots of lean, and those many practitioners who have requested that this information be brought back into print will benefit from this new release. Maura May Publisher xi Foreword to the Original English Edition A year ago Productivity Press published what we considered to be the best introduction for all employees to Just-In-Time (JIT)—a picture book entitled JIT Factory Revolution: A Pictorial Guide to Factory Design of the Future by Hiroyuki Hirano, a top international consultant. I am now proud to offer you its counterpart—the most comprehensive and detailed manual in the world today for setting up a complete JIT program. JIT Implementation Manual: The Complete Guide to Just-In-Time Manufacturing is also written by Mr. Hirano, who is really making his genius accessible for the first time. At last we have a place to go to get answers to virtually every JIT problem. One evening in January 1990, I had dinner with Mr. Hirano and his wife at a very lovely French restaurant in Tokyo. I told him how pleased I was with his work and then asked him to explain exactly what he does in his consulting practice. He started off by showing how he uses one of his forms. He gathers his client’s conversion team and reviews the homework left from his last visit.
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