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Kanban+System+看板系统.pptx

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KANBAN SYSTEM 看板 系统
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Kanban System看板系统,Activity SW No.: 4.5.6 Kanban SystemRevision #: 004Last improved: 06-Aug-2013Improved by: A. Meester,Objectives of this Module这个模块的目的,Participants will be able to:参与者能够: Name the types of Kanban and their uses说出看板种类的名称及用法Describe the steps in circulating kanban描述看板循环中的步骤Calculate Kanban quantities, 计算看板数量Name the 6 prerequisites of Kanban 说出6中看板必要条件Describe the relationship of Kanban and production smoothing (heijunka)描述看板与平稳生产的关系Evaluate the readiness to implement Kanban system评估实施看板系统是否准备就绪Follow the steps to design and set up a complete pull system within a value stream在价值流中根据步骤设计以个完整的拉动系统,Topics主题,Section 1: What is Kanban?什么是看板?Section 2: Two-card Kanban Systems 2张看板卡系统Section 3: Kanban Calculation 看板的计算Section 4: Managing the Kanban System 管理看板系统Section 5: Kanban System Implementation 看板系统的实施,Jargon Buster专业术语,Kanban看板Supermarket超市Production Instruction Kanban生产指示看板Withdrawal Kanban取料看板Supplier供应商Signal Kanban信号看板Safety stock安全库存Buffer stock缓冲库存,Jargon Buster Kanban?2-bin?Supermarket?,Section 1 Topics 第1章 主题,What is Kanban?什么是看板?Definitions is kanban看板的定义Functions of kanban看板的功能Forms of kanban看板的形式,What is Kanban?什么是看板,A tool of the pull system拉动系统的工具A signal that authorizes production or movement (withdrawal) of items授权生产或移动物料的信号The actual card, container or physical signal itself实物卡,周转箱或者实际的信号A visual method of controlling workflow, invented in the days before IT一个目视化的控制生产流的方法,在IT之前发明The system that uses kanban这个系统使用看板,What is a Kanban System什么是看板系统,Kanban is a simple and effective method for visually controlling material flow看板是一个针对目视化管理物料流的简单高效的方法The kanban system itself is full of waste such as handling, inventory and processing看板体系本身也是充满了浪费,例如物料搬运,库存及操作Kanban is the acknowledgement of the failure to implement one piece flow看板承认不能实现单件流的表现,What is Kanban?什么是看板,“See”,“board”,“Signboard” such as you see in front of a store“信号板”例如在库存前看到的,What does Kanban Do?看板能做什么?,Sets limits设定限制Kanban is like currency – you cannot buy parts without paying for them!看板就像货币—你不能在没有付钱的情况下买东西Nothing is made or moved without a kanban在没有看板的情况不生产或者移动物料Makes problems visible让问题可视化Kanban = inventory = waste看板=库存=浪费,The Two Functions of Kanban看板的2种功能,Instruct processes to produce指示工序进行生产Limits overproduction限制过量生产Instruct material handlers to move product指示物料员运送产品Withdrawal from upstream by downstream process下工序从上工序取料,In a push system there are many and complex production and transport instructions在一个推动系统中有很多复杂的生产及运输指示。Triggered by previous process (producer) = push通过上一个工序来触发(生产者)=推动,The Two Functions of Kanban看板的2种功能,Production Kanban,Withdrawal Kanban,Heijunka Box,In a pull system there are a few simple production and transport instructions在一个拉动体系中只有1个简单的生产及运输指示Triggered by next process (customer) = pull通过下工序(客户)来触发=拉动,The Two Functions of Kanban看板的2种功能,Forms of Kanban看板的形式,A kanban can be:看板能够表现为Classic “two card” system (uses production and withdrawal cards)经典的“2种卡”系统(使用生产及取料看板)“One card” system uses one of the following“看板”系统使用以下的方式Card卡片Triangular plates三角板Containers周转箱Carts推车Colored balls不用颜色的球Electronic signal电子信号Or anything that conveys only the necessary information.或者其他人能能够转换必要信息的工具,Forms of Kanban看板的形式,*Pure electronic signals are invisible, e-kanban combined with printed cards or video monitors are medium or high visibility单纯的电子信号时无形的,电子看板与纸质的看板合并或者视频监控是中等或高能见度,“One Card” Kanban Signal Examples“卡片”看板信号的例子,,,,,,,,Full1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3of 3,Full1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3 of 3,Do not produce,,,,,,,Empty2 of 3,Empty1 of 3,Full3 of 3,Full1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3 of 3,Do not produce,,,,,,,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Empty3 of 3,Full1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3 of 3,Fill 4 bins,,,,,,,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Empty3 of 3,Empty1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3 of 3,Fill 4 bins,,,,,,,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Empty3 of 3,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Full3 of 3,Fill 4 bins,,,,,,,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Empty3 of 3,Empty1 of 3,Empty2 of 3,Empty3 of 3,Empty1 of 3,,,,,,,Full2 of 3,Do not produce,Full3 of 3,Full1 of 3,Full2 of 3,Full3 of 3,“Empty Space” Kanban“空的空间”看板,,Containers or Simple Devices周转箱或简单的装置,The 2-bin system(2箱系统)Two bins with an equal amount of goods and information about the contained goods (name, location, quantity) are prepared 准备好的两箱与同等数量的商品和信息所包含的货物(名称,位置,数量)的制备Parts are taken from the first bin零件从第一箱中拿取When the first bin is empty it is the signal to replenish two more bins当第一桶是空的,这是补充两箱的信号The second bin slides forward into position of use第二箱向前滑动到使用位置Material handler replenishes two bins within agreed lead-time (before all parts are consumed) 物料员在约定的交货时间内补充第2箱(在所有零件都被消耗前),Containers or Simple Devices周转箱或简单的装置,Limitations of container/device kanban周转箱或简单装置的局限性Visibility: line of sight only, as devices typically do not travel (except carts, etc.)目视化: 唯一的视线,作为设备通常不移动(除推车,等)Quantity: a large number of devices will be needed to support high mix, low volume production数量: 大量的设备需求来支持多品种,小批量生产Flexibility: the cost to make or modify devices is high compared to printed cards 灵活性: 相对于印刷卡制作或修改设备成本高,Kanban Cards看板卡,A kanban card:看板卡:Is the most common and best known signaling method是最常见的和最知名的信号方法Travels with the parts between supplier and customer processes (from downstream to upstream) 与零件一起在供应商和客户的过程之间移动。(从下游向上游)Contains information (human and machine readable) such as包含的信息(人和机器能识别)例如:Part name and number零件名及编号Supplier process name供应工序名Pack out quantity包装数量Delivery address运送地址Storage address储存地址Withdrawal frequency补料频率,Kanban Cards看板卡,A kanban card:看板卡Differs most significantly with 2-bin in that the card is pulled as soon as the first part is taken与2箱系统最显着不同是当第一个零件被拿取后立即拉动Can be either a “move” or a “make” signal for dedicated, first-in first out lines以指“移动”或“制造”的专用信号,先进先出Most typically uses two types of cards: the withdrawal kanban and production instruction kanban通常使用两种类型的卡:领取看板和生产指令看板,,Two-card Kanban Cycles 2张看板卡循环,,,,,,,,,,,Material handler “move” loop物料员移动物料循环Responsible for withdrawal cards and material movement用于取料卡及物料移动,Operator “make” loop员工生产循环Responsible for production cards and making things用于生产看板卡及生产产品,Section 2 Topics第2部分 主题,Two-card Kanban Systems 2种卡看板系统Types of kanban 看板的类型Production instruction kanban 生产指示看板Signal kanban 信号看板Lot making board批量生产板Withdrawal kanban取料看板Supplier kanban供应商看板Kanban cycles看板循环,Types of Kanban看板的类型,,Kanban看板,Production instruction kanban生产指示看板,Withdrawal kanban取料看板,In-process kanban在制看板,Signal kanban信号看板,Supplier kanban供应商看板,Inter-process kanban内部工序看板,,,,,Part Number产品的名称Part Description产品的描述,Supplier Process Name & Location供应的工序名称及地址,Consumer ProcessName & Location使用的工序名称及地址,Quantity Per Container每箱数量,Number of Cards in System片的数量(E.g. 1 of 3),Basic Card Design基本的卡片设计,Information on a Kanban Card看板卡上的信息,The action (make, move, etc.)行动(制造,移动)Part number物料名称Part description物料描述The supplier (or process) name供应商(工序)名称Quantity数量Container quantity周转箱数量The source location物料存储的地址The delivery location物料运送地址The timing of the action (kanban cycle)行动的时间(看板循环时间)Etc.等等。,Production Instruction Card Example生产指示卡案例,Point of use information使用点信息,Product information产品信息,Supplier process information供应工序信息,,,,Production Instruction Kanban生产指示看板,Lot for lotChangeover times are not an issue换型时间不存在问题Can be produced “lot for lot” as needed根据需要进行批量生产Quantity in container is set by pace of customer withdrawal周转箱内的数量根据客户取料的节拍设定Production kanban always stays with the producer (circulates internally)生产看板往往在生产处(内部循环)Remove card (trigger) when first part is removed from container当第一个零件冲周转箱中拿取时拆下看板卡(触发)。,Production Instruction Card: In-process生产指示卡:工序内,,,,,,,Downstream process uses withdrawal kanban to pull material下游工序使用补料看板卡来拉动物料Production instruction card is removed生产指示看板卡被触发Team leader collects cards from post and places them on kanban board as instruction to produce组长收集看板卡并公布在看板板上用于指示生产Operator attaches production instruction card material container, removes withdrawal card and places it in post, begins production as instructed by kanban操作员将生产指示卡附在物料周转箱上,拆下补料看板,并开始按照看板指示进行生产。,3,2,1,4,Kanban in a Batch Process批量生产工序的看板,There are three primary methods for linking kanban to a batch process有3个初级的方法将看板与批量生产工序链接起来Signal kanban at reorder point信号看板Pattern production模式生产Lot making board 批量生产板,Production Instruction: Signal Kanban生产指示:信号看板,Signal card (triangle) places the order信号卡(3角)下订单Material card (rectangle) instructs raw material preparation物料卡(矩形)指示原材料准备Fixed quantity, variable time only数量固定,时间可变Normally used when the set-up time is too long to maintain single piece or small lots通常情况下用于设立时间太长以至于不能保证单件或者小批量Signal position = reorder point信号位置=下订单点Reorder quantity = production lot size 订购数量=生产批量大小Lot size is greater than usage quantity批量大小大于用量数量,Signal Kanban Example信号看板案例,,,,,Withdrawal kanban取料看板Production kanban (material preparation)生产看板Signal kanban信号看板,Signal Kanban信号看板,Withdrawal kanban取料看板,Signal Kanban信号看板,1,4,3,2,,,,,Pattern Production模式生产,Following a fixed sequence (pattern) of production that is repeated按照一个重复的固定的生产顺序ABCDEFG ? ABCDEFG ? ABCDEFG ? etc.Optimized around changeover difficulty (e.g. color change from lighter to darker)优化换型的难度(例如:颜色从淡到深)Pattern replenishment cycle determines supermarket inventory level (e.g. 1 day pattern = 1 day supply of stock)模式的补料循环时间定义了超市库存的水平(例如:1天模式=1天的库存),A,B,C,D,E,F,F,G,G,A,,,Visual Wheel for Pattern Production模式生产的目视化转盘,Pattern Production模式生产,Advantages of pattern production模式生产的优势Simple method – may not require kanban简单的方法-也许不需要看板Predictable changeover sequence可预见的换模顺序Batch size allows buffer for variability批量大小考虑缓冲及变化性Disadvantages of pattern production模式生产的劣势Fixed sequence cannot be changed固定不能更改的顺序Hides problems – less need to reduce changeover times隐藏了问题—减少了换模时间减少的必要性。Requires periodic reanalysis of the demand pattern要求预先对生产需求的模式进行分析,Part #,Reorder Point Line订购点,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Minimizes changeovers by running the same part numbers as a batch批量生产相同的品号来减少换模时间When the arriving kanban crosses the reorder point, those parts must be produced next当收到的看板卡超过订货点,这些零件必须马上进行生产,Lot Making Board批量生产板,,A01,A02,B01,B02,B03,B04,C01,C02,C03,,Triggered!触发Produce quantity specified on the 5 cards生产数量设定为5张卡,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,= production instruction kanban cards生产指示看板卡,Lot Making批量生产,Advantages of lot making boards批量生产板的优势More frequent information flow back to the producer process (compared to signal kanban)Visually displays inventory consumption rates Problems can be seen earlierDisadvantages of lot making boards批量生产板的劣势Accuracy of board depends on how quickly kanban cards are returned o the board批量板的准确性基于看板卡能够多快的返回批量板Creates a temptation to build ahead (before trigger point is reached) 创建一个诱惑点在生产前(在触发点到达前),Withdrawal Kanban补料看板,Internal – circulates between processes within a site内部—在工厂内部的不同工序间循环External – circulates between customer and supplier sites外部—在客户及供应商之间循环,Point of use information使用点信息,Product information生产信息,,Source Dept.,Molding,Machine #:,IM-P9Q2,Location:地址,R1K09B,Part description:零件描述,Lower basin,Quantity数量:,10,Kanban card: 3 of 9看板卡:3 of 9,Operation工序 30,Delivery location:运送地址,Sub assembly cell #2半制品生产线#2,Part #零件号:,M-8532,Upstream process上游工序,,,,Inter-process Withdrawal Kanban内部工序补料看板卡,Supplier (Withdrawal) Kanban供应商(取料)看板,Travels between two different companies – customer and supplier在2加不同的公司间移动—客户与供应商Card contains part-specific information for both companies (part number, location, etc.)卡片包含零件在两家公司特定的信息(零件编号,地址等)Each kanban card serves as a commercially binding order based on blanket purchase order specifying various terms 每个看板卡服务于一个基于特定不同时期的空白订单,,,,,Supplier Kanban Circulation供应商看板循环,,,,3,2,1,4,,5,Finished goods supermarket成品超市,Supplier供应商,Supplier kanban are removed from container when the first part is used and placed in post当第一个零件被使用时将供应商看板从周转箱上取出Kanban cards are collected from the post at a set time and delivered to sorting machine看板卡被收集并公布定期被公布及送至相应的机器Sorted kanban cards are placed in supplier’s slot分类过的看板卡放置在对应的供应商的槽内。Supplier picks up kanban at the when they arrive to make a delivery当供应商抵达及送货时取回看板卡Supplier kanban are sorted and distributed to shipping areas分类后的供应商看板分发到出货区域Kanban are matched with parts and prepared according to specified delivery cycle看板卡与相应的物料对应起来根据特定的交货循环准备好Parts are delivered from the supplier to the receiving are or the line供应商将零件交付到收货区域或生产线。,6,7,,,,Supplier Kanban Circulation供应商看板循环,Kanbans flowing between customers and suppliers are part of existing the framework of blanket POs and do not need to pass through sales or purchasing organizations客户与供应商之间的看板流程是现有的空白订单的架构,不需要通过销售及采购组织。The kanban cards do pass through sorting center managed by production control 生产控制部门通过挑选中心来管理看板卡,,,,,,Supplier Kanban System Example供应商看板案例,Toyota final assembly plant丰田成品组装工厂15,000 vehicles per month 15000辆车/月1,200 employees 1200名员工,All supplier parts are controlled by kanban所有的供应商零件通过看板进行管理Sorting and distribution center for withdrawal kanban cards (supplier transport)用于挑选及分发补料看板卡的中心(供应商运输)Two full time production control people2个全日制的生产管理人员,Supplier Kanban Card Example供应商看板卡案例,Point of use information使用点信息,Product information 产品信息,Supplier information供应商信息,,,,Delivery timing,,,Supplier Kanban Cycles供应商看板循环,The meaning of “1-4-2” on example card:案例上“1-4-2”的意思1 = parts on the card will be delivered within one day of the card being pulled 1= 在卡上将在一天内被交付的零件4 = a supplier’s truck will deliver these parts to the supplier four times per day 供应商的卡车将会将这些零件每天4次交付到供应商2 = this kanban card will return not on the next truck but on the 2nd truck arriving 2=这张看板卡将不会在下一辆卡车上返回,但是会在第二辆卡车返回,Kanban Delivery Cycles,1:4:2,,,,“Period”周期In one day在一天内,“Frequency”频率Make four deliveries4次交付,“Lag” 迟延And these parts must come back two deliveries after supplier kanban is sent这些零件在看板卡发出后的2次交货后返回,Supplier Kanban Cycles供应商看板循环,Customer客户,Supplier供应商,,,,,Supplier Kanban Cycles供应商看板循环,1:4:2,1 day1天4 deliveries4次交付2 trucks later2次交付后后,,Broadcast Kanban广播看板,Communicating Supplier Kanban沟通供应商看板,Forecast Kanban预测看板Electronic signal sent out several hours in advance of physical cards based on set schedule from daily or weekly build plan根据每天及每周的计划在实物卡发出前的几个小时发出电子信号Used for short lead-time materials, such as when suppliers are on same campus用于生产时间短的物料,例如当供应在相同的区域Adjustments can be made quickly based on actual usage可以根据实际的用量快速的进行调整,Communicating Supplier Kanban沟通供应商看板,Broadcast Kanban广播看板Electronic signal sent out several hours in advance of physical cards based on actual usage根据实际的使用量在实物卡发出前的几个小时发出电子信号Used for longer lead-time materials用于生产时间长的物料Safety stock may or may not be consumed – “planned pull” can become push安全库存可能不会被使用,“计划的拉动”成为推动,Section 3 Topics第3章 主题,Kanban Calculation看板计算The variables变量Kanban quantity calculation看板数量计算Signal point calculation信号点计算Three types of stock3种库存类型Calculation exercises计算练习Tips提示,Kanban System Parameters看板系统的参数,Kanban calculation determines看板计算决定于How many parts are needed in the system系统中需要多少零件Form and circulation of kanban形式及看板的循环How many signals are needed in the system系统中需要多少信号Total cards or non-card signals所有的卡及非卡的信号Total containers所有的周转箱When replenishment will happen补料发生于Specified on the kanban card or signal看板卡或信号中特定的时间,
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