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Flow Production Line Design 流线化生产线设计 中英版.ppt

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FLOW PRODUCTION LINE DESIGN 流线 化生 设计 中英版
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1,Version B,Flow Production Line - Design Method 流线化生产线 - 设计方法,Prepared By 编写人Steve Wong,Course Code: SFM-A2-2,2,PPP,Purpose 目的 Learn the standard method and procedure of designing a flow production line for a daily output target 学习按一个日产量目标, 设计流线化生产线的标准方法和程序Process 过程 Present the basic line design procedure 描述生产线设计的基本程序 Explain the essential concepts for each design step with simple examples 通过简单的例子, 解释每个设计步骤相关的主要概念 Further illustrate the line design procedure with a complete practical example of pant production 运用生产裤子的实际例子, 进一步说明生产线设计的完整程序Payoff 回报 Master the basic know-how of designing a flow production line and achieve the delivery and efficiency objectives 掌握设计流程生产线的基本技巧,以达到交付和效率目标,3,1.Design Procedure 设计程序 2.Value Stream / Process Flow Chart 价值流程图3.Operation Process Times 工序加工时间 4.Takt Time 产距时间5.Machine Allocation 机器配置 6. Line Layout Design 线布局设计7. Operator Tasks Assignment 分配作业员工作8. Practical Example 实际例子,Contents 内容,4,Design Procedure设计程序,5,Objective 目的 To plan the allocation and arrangement of machines and operators for setting up a flow production line so that the target of production schedule can be met in the most efficient way before production start for a new style of product于开始生产新款产品之前,计划一条流生产线所需的机器配置和作业员工作安排,以最有效率的方式完成生产计划的目标It aims to achieve high productivity, low WIP, and short production lead times 它的目是实现高效率,少在制品,以及短交付期的生产,Design Procedure 设计程序,6,Develop value stream /process flow chart for the product编制产品的价值流程图2)Determine operation process times 确定工序加工时间(including包括 PT,HT, MT, OT)3)Determine Takt time (TT) 确定产距时间 4)Determine the number of machines required for each operation确定每一个工序所需的机器数量 Design line layout based on the process sequence依据加工顺序设计生产线布局Assign operations to each operator with work loading not excess TT 以工作量不超过TT为限, 分配工序给每个作业员,Design Procedure 设计程序,7,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,8,Function 用途 Identify all the operations and their work sequence for a given type of product. It should contain all operations from start to end确定一个特定产品类型的所有工序以及它们的顺序,其中应包含从开始到结束的所有工序Determine the type of machines and associated standard time (SMV) for each operation确定每个工序所需的机器类型和相关的标准时间(SMV)Provides a means to define a complete and efficient process flow提供一个种途径来确定一个完整和有效率的工艺流程 Devise the operation codes required for line layout and operator loading制定生产线布局和作业员工作分配所需的工序编码,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,9,Prerequisite Information 必须的资料 Operation breakdown and work content 工序明细和工作内容 (Piece Rate Sheet 工价单)Standard times 标准时间(SMV)Machine types 机器类型Accessories: press foot, folders, attachments, etc.配件: 压脚, 蝴蝶, 附件, 等等 Thread and needle number 针和线的编号,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,10,Construction notes 编制备注 Develop for a type of product or style with the same process flow按照相同工艺流程的产品类型或款式而编制 Identify the main flow, i.e. the longest process path, as the backbone 确定主要的流程(主流),即最长的工序路线,为骨干 Identify all the branch flow and the locations to join the main flow确定所有分支流程(支流)以及其与主流汇合的位置 Identify all the materials required and the supply locations确定所有所需材料以及其供应的位置Identify all the NT associated with each operation确定所有工序相关的 NT,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,11,ANPS Value Stream / Process Flow Chart SymbolsANPS 价值流程图符号,Input materials for processing加工使用的材料,Output completed goods after processing完成加工后的产品,Operations (x is operation code)工序 (x是工序代码),Self 100% inspection百分百自验,sampling inspectionQA 抽样检验,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,12,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,Example例子,13,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,Example例子,14,Drafting Rules 编制规则 : Cut pieces /sub-material at the top 裁片/材料于顶部 Main flow on the right end 主流放于右端 Main flow ended with finished product 成品放于主流末端 Branch flow from top to bottom 支流从上而下插入主流 Branch flow line inserted before joining operation 支流线于连接工序前插入 Sub-branch flow from top to bottom like branch flow 支流的分支像支流一样从上到下插入,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,15,Drafting Rules 编制规则 : Align operations and allow one operation for one row 对齐工序,并一行只可放一工序 All materials description to the top of every flow 所有材料名称于每个支流顶端 All operations description to the right of the symbol 所有工序名称于符号的右边 Add machine description to the right of each operation 于所有工序名称的右边加上机器名称 Add NT to the right of each machine 于所有机器名称的右边加上NT,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,16,Operations Coding Guidelines 工序编码准则 : Code operations on the main flow with simple serial number, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. 于主流的工序使用简单序号, 即 1, 2, 3, 4,等 Code operations on the branch flow with a prefix relating to the main operation plus a simple serial number with hyphen, e.g. 1A-1, 1A-2, 1A-3, etc. 于支流的工序用相关主流序号作 字首加上大写字母和简单序号, 例如 1A-1, 1A-2, 1A-3,等 Capital letter in branch flow prefix indicates order of parallel branches, e.g. 1A, 1B, 1C, etc. 于支流用大写字母支流代表序号, 例如 1A, 1B, 1C, 等 Sub-branch operations are code in the same fashion as branch operations by adding more prefix 次级支流用更多字首以同样的方式编码 All input materials are coded by the branch / sub-branch prefix 所有输入的材料用支流/次级支流的字首编码,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,17,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0A,2A,,2B,3A,1A,,,,,1,2B-1,3,3A-1,3A-2,Example例子,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,,,,,3A2A,3A2A-1,,,,,2,2B-2,Opn1,Opn2,Opn3,Opn4,Opn5,Opn6,Opn7,Opn8,MC1,MC2,MC3,MC4,MC5,MC6,MC7,MC8,T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,OperationDescription工序名称,MachineDescription机器名称,NT,m6,m5,m4,m3,m2,m1,MaterialsDescription材料名称,18,Header Information 页头信息: Customer Name 客户名称 Product Type (e.g. shirt, pant , blouse) 产品类型(如衬衣,裤子,衬衫) Style Number / Type 编号/类型 Total 总 SMV Prepared By 编写人 Date 日期 Version 版本,Value Stream /Process Flow Chart价值流程图,19,3.Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,20,Process Time 加工时间 (PT) the total time required to complete an operation in a workstation for a product 于一个工作站完成一个工序所需要的时间Human Work Time 人的工作时间 (HT) the time spent by an operator to complete a process cycle at normal speed without adding allowance 一个作业员以正常速度完成一个产品加工周期,而不包括宽放的时间 it contains all manual handling and walking times for an operation 其中包括完成工序所需要的手工操作和行走的时间,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,21,Machine Work Time 机器的工作时间 (MT) the time duration when a machine is running to work on a product in a process cycle于一个产品加工周期中, 一台机器的运行时间Overlapping time 重叠时间 (OT) the time when both machine and operator is working on a product within a process cycle于一个产品加工周期中, 机器和作业员同时工作的时间,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,22,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Convention 表示方法,PT = Process time 加工时间 (sec)HT = Human work time 人的工作时间 (sec)MT = Machine work time 机器的工作时间 (sec) OT = Overlapping work time 重叠的工作时间 (sec),Note 注意 :Following the new standard, the time unit is “Second”, not “Minutes”按照新的标准,时间单位是“秒 ” ,而不是“分”,PT = HT + MT - OT,23,,,,,,,,,HT1,HT2,上载的时间Loading Time,控制时间ControlTime,HT3,下载的时间UnloadingTime,Machine Time 机器的时间:,,,,MT,,,Overlapping Time 重叠时间:,,,,OT,,PT,,加工时间Process Time:,OT = MTHence于是 , PT = HT,For common sewing operations, 对于一般缝纫工 序,Human Time 人的时间:,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,HT = HT1 + HT2 +HT3,,24,Case个案 I:,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Attach zipper operation 落拉链工序,HT = ?MT = ?OT = ?PT = ?,25,Case个案 I:,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Attach zipper operation 落拉链工序,HT1 = 6 sec 秒, HT2 = 3 sec 秒, HT3 = 1 sec 秒HT = 6+3+1 = 10 sec 秒MT = 3 sec 秒OT = 3 sec 秒PT = HT + MT – OT = 10 + 3 – 3 = 10 sec 秒,Note: OT = MT and PT = HT,26,Case个案 II:,Eyelet Hole Operation 打凤眼工序,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,HT = ?MT = ?OT = ?PT = ?,27,Case个案 II:,Eyelet Hole Operation 打凤眼工序,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,HT1 = 4 sec 秒 ; HT2 = 1 sec 秒HT = 4 + 1 = 5 sec 秒MT = 9 sec 秒OT = 0 sec 秒PT = HT + MT – OT = 5 + 9 – 0 = 14 sec 秒,Note: OT = 0 and PT > HT,28,Application notes 应用备注 PT/HT should be based on the actual time measurement without any adjustment PT/HT 应根据实际测量的时间而没有任何调整 in case measured times not available, SMV (i.e. NT) can be used after taking away allowance factor 如果无有测量时间,可用使已除去宽放因素的 SMV (即 NT) Common guideline for TAL factories TAL 工厂的一般指引 : PT = NT = SMV x 80%,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Note 备注 : NT is Normal Time NT 指正常时间,29,Cycle Time 周期时间 (CT) Average time of completing one product by one or more workstations 由一个或多个工作站完成一个产品的平均时间 CTi : cycle time of i-th operation 第 i 个工序的周期时间 CTL : cycle time of the whole line 整条生产线的周期时间 Represent the true speed or capacity of an operation or production line 代表一个工序或一条生产线的真正速度和产能 Used to determine the bottleneck of the production line 用于确定生产线的瓶颈,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,30,,PT,PBS x m,CT =,For an operation 对于一个工序,,,PT,CT =,Typically for sewing operations 通常对于缝纫工序, PT = HT and PBS = 1,Hence 因此,,m,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Where 这里 , PBS = Process Batch Size加工批量m = No. of workstations of individual operation 个别工序的工作站数量,31,Example 例 1For an attach waist band operation performed by 3 operators,对于一个由3个作业员同时操作的上裤头工序HT (operator 作业员 1) = 60 sec 秒 HT (operator 作业员 2) = 63 sec 秒 HT (operator 作业员 3) = 57 sec 秒,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Then 那么, PT = (60+63+57)/ 3 = 60 sec 秒 CT = 60 / 3 = 20 sec 秒,32,Example 例 2For an collar pressing operation performed by 1 operator processing 4 collar every time,对于一个由1名作业员操作每次处理4个衣领的焗领工序PT = 12 sec 秒,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,Then 那么, PBS = 4CT = 12/ 4 = 3 sec 秒,33,For a production line as a whole 对于整条生产线,,CTL = Longest cycle time of individual operations in the line 生产线个别工序的最长周期时间 i.e. the cycle time of bottleneck operation 即瓶颈工序的周期时间,Operation Process Times 工序加工时间,34,4.Takt Time 产距时间,35,Takt Time 产距时间: the target average time of producing a product by a production line 按目标一条生产线产出一个产品的平均相距时间,,Net Production Working Time per Day (sec)每天净生产工作时间 (秒),Target Output per Day (pcs)每天目标生产数(件 ),Note 备注: Planned breaks such as lunch break, team meeting, regular cleaning should be deduced. 应当扣除计划停止时间,如午膳时间,小组会议,定期清洗,Takt Time (TT) =,Takt Time 产距时间,36,Takt Time 产距时间,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,Method 1 - Based on Production Schedule方法1 - 基于对生产计划,Target Output per Day (pcs) = 每天目标生产数(件),,Scheduled Daily Output Quantity计划每日产出数量,,Net Production Working Time per Day (sec)每天净生产工作时间 (秒),TT =,Scheduled Daily Output Quantity (件 )计划每日产出数量,Note 注: the scheduled daily output quantity should be the minimum quantity required to complete per day in order to meet the scheduled deadline为了满足预定期限,计划每日产出数量应该是每一天完成数量的最低要求,37,Takt Time 产距时间,Example 例子 :Working Hours per Day 每天工作时数 = 10 hrs 小时 Lunch Time 午餐时间 = 1 hr 小时Cleaning Time 清洗时间 = 10 min. 分钟 Scheduled Output Quantity per Day = 1000 pcs 件 每节预定产出数量,Net working hours = (10 – 1 – (10/60)) x 3600 = 31,800 (sec 秒 ),,31,800,TT =,1000,= 31.8 sec? 32 sec,Note: TT should be rounded up to be an integer注: TT应四舍五入为一个整数,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,净工作时数,秒,秒,38,Takt Time 产距时间,Method 2 - Based on the target daily output or efficiency方法2 - 基于目标日产量或效率,TT can be calculated once daily output is set, which is normally larger than that required by production schedule.TT 可以按日产量设定 ,而其日产量通常比生产排期要求的大。,For the above example, if the target daily output is set as 1200 pcsper day 按上面的例子,如果目标日产量设定为1200件,,,31,800,TT =,1200,26.5 sec 秒,=,? 27 sec 秒,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,Then 则,39,Takt Time 产距时间,Typically, the target daily output is derived from a target efficiency. Hence, TT would be computed for a given efficiency.通常情况下,目标日产量来自目标效率。因此,TT可按一个特定效率计算出来。,Example 例:No. of operators 作业员数目 = 25Total 总 SMV = 20 min 分 Working Hours 工作时间 = 10 hrs 时 Target efficiency 目标效率 = 80%Target Daily Output 目标日产量 = ( 600 x 25 x 80% ) / 20 = 600 pcs 件 TT = 10 x 3600 / 600 = 60 sec 秒,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,40,Takt Time 产距时间,Method 3 - Based on the cycle time of bottleneck machine方法 3 - 基于瓶颈机器的周期时间,The bottleneck machine refers to the machine with lowest production speed in the production line, and no more machine can be added.瓶颈机器是指生产线中生产速度最低的机器,并且没有更多同样的机器可以加进 。,,,PTb,PBSb x mb,CTb =,TT =,where CTb, PTb, PBSb, mb are the cycle time, process time, batch size, and quantity of the bottleneck machine 其中 CTb, PTb, PBSb, mb 分别是瓶颈机器的周期时间,加工时间,批量大小和数量,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,41,Takt Time 产距时间,Example 例子 :Suppose there is only one “attach waist band” machine in a pant production line, which is the bottleneck machine. If the process time is 60 sec and process batch size is 1, compute the TT.假设生产线只有一个”上裤头“的机器,而且这是瓶颈机器。如果该加工时间是60秒和工序批量大小为1,计算的TT。,,PTb,PBSb x mb,CTb =,,60,1 x 1,=,= 60 sec 秒,TT = 60 sec 秒,Hence 故 ,,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,42,Takt Time 产距时间,Method 4 - Based on ideally balanced workload 方法4 - 基于理想的平衡工作量,The ideally balanced workload means the sum of total human work times (HT) for producing a garment is equally shared by every operators.理想的平衡工作量是指生产一件服装的总人时(HT)由每一个作业员平均 分担。,,Total总 HT,No. of Operators作业员数目,TT =,Note 注意: No. of operators should exclude water spiders 作业员数目应不包括水蜘蛛 The result will reflect the potential maximum output of the production line based on the current operator performance 其结果将反映根据目前作业员的表现, 生产线的最大产出潜力,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,43,Takt Time 产距时间,Example 例子:Total总 HT = 1800 sec 秒No. of Operators 作业员数目 = 25,,1800,25,TT =,= 72 sec 秒,How to determine TT ?如何确定 TT ?,44,Machine Allocation机器配置,45,Mi = Number of machines for i-th operation 第 i 个工序的机器数量,Mi =,,PTi / PBSi,TT,Number of Machines 机器数量,Number of Machines 机器数量,46,Technical requirements of operations, i.e. types of machine, accessories and thread 工序的技术要求,即机器的类型,配件和线Advantage of combining multiple operations in one machine整合多个工序于一台机器的好处 No. of operators assigned for using machines分配作业员使用机器的数目 Operation Sequence 工序的顺序 Machine utilization and availability 机器的使用率和可用性,Considerations 考虑点,Number of Machines 机器数量,47,6.Line Layout Design 线布局设计,48,Four Main Rules of ANPS One Piece FlowANPS 四大原则,1)Arrange machines based on the order of operation codes (refer to value stream process flow chart), and minimize separation 依据工序顺序号排列 (参照价值流程图), 尽量靠拢2)Use two parallel line layout with U shape material flow in counter clockwise direction (product flow direction) 二字型布置, U字型顺逆时针物流 (产品的流动方向)3)First and last operations are located at the two ends of U shape 头(第一工序)尾(最后工序)在U字形两端4)Arrange operators to work inside the two parallel lines (enable work sharing) 作业员安排在U字形内侧工作(可互相帮助),Line Layout Design 线布局设计,49,Line Layout – two parallel lines shape线形布局 - 两条平行线形状,
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