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Cellular Manufacturing.pdf

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CELLULAR MANUFACTURING
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ISBN: 978-1-4665-7755-8 9 781466 577558 90000 www.crcpress.com K16797 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487 711 Third Avenue New York, NY 10017 2 Park Square, Milton Park Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK an informa business www.crcpress.com In today’s business world, competitiveness defines the industrial leading edge. Organizations and businesses of all sizes are adopting Lean manufacturing practices to increase efficiency and address worries about their bottom lines. In a detailed review of this staple of Lean manufacturing, Cellular Manufacturing: Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty outlines how cellular manufacturing can do just that. It demonstrates how this approach can help you and your teams build a variety of products with as little waste as possible. The book begins by presenting a survey of the current state of existing methods that can best be used in the handling of the bottleneck machines and parts problem, which results from the cellular manufacturing system design. It then explores how decision making under risk is used to help the designer select the best cell arrangement in case of probabilistic production volume and maximize the profit imposed by resource capacity constraints. The author then presents a method for the system design of a manufacturing cell that aims for profit maximization over a certain period of time. He also discusses robust design, illustrated with a real application. Put simply, cellular manufacturing integrates machinery and a small team of staff, directed by a team leader, so all the work on a product or part can be accomplished in the same cell eliminating resources that do not add value to the product. A concise yet unique reference, this book incorporates decision making under risk into cellular manufacturing. The text makes the link that ties cellular manufacturing to the bottom line. It helps you recognize savings opportunities from elimination of downtime between operations, decreased material handling costs, decreased work-in-progress inventory and associated costs, reduced opportunity for handling errors, decreased downtime spent waiting for supplies or materials, and reduced losses from defective or obsolete products. Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty Wang John X. Wang CELLULAR MANUFACTURING Cellular Manufacturing Cellular Manufacturing Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing K16797 cvr mech.indd 1 12/9/14 11:39 AMCellular Manufacturing Mitigating Risk and UncertaintyIndustrial Innovation Series Series Editor Adedeji B. Badiru Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) – Dayton, Ohio PUBLISHED TITLES Carbon Footprint Analysis: Concepts, Methods, Implementation, and Case Studies, Matthew John Franchetti & Defne Apul Cellular Manufacturing: Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty, John X. Wang Communication for Continuous Improvement Projects, Tina Agustiady Computational Economic Analysis for Engineering and Industry, Adedeji B. Badiru & Olufemi A. Omitaomu Conveyors: Applications, Selection, and Integration, Patrick M. McGuire Culture and Trust in Technology-Driven Organizations, Frances Alston Global Engineering: Design, Decision Making, and Communication, Carlos Acosta, V. Jorge Leon, Charles Conrad, & Cesar O. Malave Handbook of Emergency Response: A Human Factors and Systems Engineering Approach, Adedeji B. Badiru & LeeAnn Racz Handbook of Industrial Engineering Equations, Formulas, and Calculations, Adedeji B. Badiru & Olufemi A. Omitaomu Handbook of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Second Edition Adedeji B. Badiru Handbook of Military Industrial Engineering, Adedeji B. Badiru & Marlin U. Thomas Industrial Control Systems: Mathematical and Statistical Models and Techniques, Adedeji B. Badiru, Oye Ibidapo-Obe, & Babatunde J. Ayeni Industrial Project Management: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques, Adedeji B. Badiru, Abidemi Badiru, & Adetokunboh Badiru Inventory Management: Non-Classical Views, Mohamad Y. Jaber Kansei Engineering - 2-volume set? Innovations of Kansei Engineering, Mitsuo Nagamachi & Anitawati Mohd Lokman? Kansei/Affective Engineering, Mitsuo Nagamachi Knowledge Discovery from Sensor Data, Auroop R. Ganguly, Jo?o Gama, Olufemi A. Omitaomu, Mohamed Medhat Gaber, & Ranga Raju Vatsavai Learning Curves: Theory, Models, and Applications, Mohamad Y. Jaber Managing Projects as Investments: Earned Value to Business Value, Stephen A. Devaux Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices, Lincoln Harding Forbes & Syed M. Ahmed Moving from Project Management to Project Leadership: A Practical Guide to Leading Groups, R. Camper Bull Project Management: Systems, Principles, and Applications, Adedeji B. Badiru Project Management for the Oil and Gas Industry: A World System Approach, Adedeji B. Badiru & Samuel O. Osisanya Quality Management in Construction Projects, Abdul Razzak Rumane Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects, Abdul Razzak Rumane Social Responsibility: Failure Mode Effects and Analysis, Holly Alison Duckworth & Rosemond Ann MooreStatistical Techniques for Project Control, Adedeji B. Badiru & Tina Agustiady STEP Project Management: Guide for Science, Technology, and Engineering Projects, Adedeji B. Badiru Sustainability: Utilizing Lean Six Sigma Techniques, Tina Agustiady & Adedeji B. Badiru Systems Thinking: Coping with 21st Century Problems, John Turner Boardman & Brian J. Sauser Techonomics: The Theory of Industrial Evolution, H. Lee Martin Total Project Control: A Practitioner’s Guide to Managing Projects as Investments, Second Edition, Stephen A. Devaux Triple C Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, Coordination, Adedeji B. Badiru FORTHCOMING TITLES 3D Printing Handbook: Product Development for the Defense Industry, Adedeji B. Badiru & Vhance V. Valencia Company Success in Manufacturing Organizations: A Holistic Systems Approach, Ana M. Ferreras & Lesia L. Crumpton-Young Essentials of Engineering Leadership and Innovation, Pamela McCauley-Bush & Lesia L. Crumpton-Young Global Manufacturing Technology Transfer: Africa-USA Strategies, Adaptations, and Management, Adedeji B. Badiru Guide to Environment Safety and Health Management: Developing, Implementing, and Maintaining a Continuous Improvement Program, Frances Alston & Emily J. Millikin Handbook of Construction Management: Scope, Schedule, and Cost Control, Abdul Razzak Rumane Handbook of Measurements: Benchmarks for Systems Accuracy and Precision, Adedeji B. Badiru & LeeAnn Racz Introduction to Industrial Engineering, Second Edition, Avraham Shtub & Yuval Cohen Kansei Innovation: Practical Design Applications for Product and Service Development, Mitsuo Nagamachi & Anitawati Mohd Lokman Project Management for Research: Tools and Techniques for Science and Technology, Adedeji B. Badiru, Vhance V. Valencia & Christina Rusnock A Six Sigma Approach to Sustainability: Continual Improvement for Social Responsibility, Holly Allison Duckworth & Andrea Hoffmeier Zimmerman PUBLISHED TITLESCellular Manufacturing Mitigating Risk and Uncertainty John X. WangCRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 ? 2015 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20141120 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-7758-9 (eBook - PDF) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor- age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copy- right.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that pro- vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photo- copy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.comTo the beautiful Grand River by which my sweet home is located.ix Contents Preface ................................................................................................................xv Author ............................................................................................................. xvii Chapter 1 The handling of bottleneck machines and parts in cellular manufacturing ......................................................... 1 1.1 Cellular manufacturing: Workplace design based on work cells ..... 1 1.2 How to establish cellular manufacturing systems ............................. 3 1.3 Forming cells to capture the inherent advantages of group technology (GT) ....................................................................................... 5 1.4 The cell formation problem .................................................................... 7 1.5 The cell formation problem .................................................................... 8 1.5.1 Demand profile .......................................................................... 8 1.5.2 Assumptions ............................................................................ 10 1.5.3 Support of assumptions about key model parameters ...... 10 1.5.4 Grand Cycle’s current (as- is) model ...................................... 11 1.5.5 A flexible manufacturing system .......................................... 11 1.5.6 A deterministic model to estimate system performance ... 13 1.5.7 Develop the future state: To- be model.................................. 17 1.5.8 Results and recommendations .............................................. 20 1.6 Lean manufacturing.............................................................................. 21 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 2 Sequence- based cellular manufacturing ............................. 25 2.1 Cellular manufacturing: Workplace design based on work cells ... 25 2.2 Decision making under risk ................................................................. 27 2.2.1 Decision matrices for cellular manufacturing..................... 27 2.2.2 Decisions or actions ................................................................. 28 2.2.3 States of nature ......................................................................... 29 2.2.4 Probabilities of the states of nature ....................................... 29 2.2.5 Payoffs ....................................................................................... 30x Contents 2.2.6 The principles for decisions under risk ................................ 31 2.2.6.1 The principle of expectation .................................. 31 2.2.6.2 The principle of most probable future ................. 32 2.2.6.3 The aspiration- level principle ............................... 32 2.3 Decision making under uncertainty ................................................... 33 2.3.1 The minimax principle ........................................................... 34 2.3.2 The minimin (or maximax) principle ................................... 34 2.3.3 The Hurwicz principle ............................................................ 34 2.3.4 The Laplace principle .............................................................. 35 2.3.5 The Savage principle (minimax regret) ................................ 35 2.4 Sequence- based materials flow procedure ........................................ 35 2.4.1 Notations of describing sequence- based materials flow ... 36 2.4.2 Algorithm for assessing sequence- based materials flow .... 36 2.5 Problem formation ................................................................................. 37 2.5.1 The design objective ................................................................ 38 2.5.2 System parameters ................................................................... 38 2.5.2.1 Part demand ............................................................ 38 2.5.2.2 Operation sequence ................................................ 38 2.5.2.3 Processing time ....................................................... 38 2.5.2.4 Resource capacity .................................................... 39 2.5.2.5 Material handling cost ........................................... 39 2.5.2.6 Skipping cost ........................................................... 40 2.5.2.7 Total material flow cost .......................................... 40 2.5.2.8 Total profit ................................................................ 40 2.5.3 System constraints ................................................................... 40 2.6 Machine cell formation under probabilistic demand ...................... 41 2.7 Machine cell formation under risk...................................................... 42 2.8 Machine cell formation under uncertainty........................................ 43 2.9 Six Sigma ................................................................................................. 43 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 44 Chapter 3 Cellular manufacturing and jidoka (autonomation) ......... 47 3.1 Overall equipment effectiveness for cellular manufacturing ......... 47 3.2 Jidoka (autonomation) for ensuring overall equipment effectiveness ........................................................................................... 48 3.3 Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for implementing jidoka ............................................................................. 49 3.3.1 SCADA for energy efficiency management .........................
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