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SAE J1574_1_Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies.pdf

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SAE J1574_1_MEASUREMENT OF VEHICLE AND SUSPENSION PARAMETERS FOR DIRECTIONAL CONTROL STUDIES
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__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SAE Technical Standards Board Rules provide that: “This report is published by SAE to advance the state of technical and engineering sciences. The use of this report is entirely voluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.” SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be revised, reaffirmed, stabilized, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions. Copyright ? 2012 SAE International All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE. TO PLACE A DOCUMENT ORDER: Tel: 877-606-7323 (inside USA and Canada) Tel: +1 724-776-4970 (outside USA) Fax: 724-776-0790 Email: CustomerService@sae.org SAE WEB ADDRESS: http://www.sae.org SAE values your input. To provide feedbackon this Technical Report, please visit http://www.sae.org/technical/standards/J1574/1_201210 SURFACE VEHICLE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE J1574-1 OCT2012 Issued 1994-05 Revised 2012-10 Superseding J1574-1 MAY2005 Measurement of Vehicle and Suspension Parameters for Directional Control Studies RATIONALE This document was revised to correct typographical and formatting errors in Equations 5-7, and minor typographical errors in some of the tables and figures. 1. SCOPE The parameters measured according to this SAE Recommended Practice will generally be used in simulating directional control performance in the linear range. (The “linear range” is the steady-state lateral acceleration below which steering wheel angle can generally be considered to be linearly related to lateral acceleration.) But they may be used for certain other simulations (such as primary ride motions), vehicle and suspension characterization and comparison, suspension development and optimization, and processing of road test data. This document is intended to apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and on-highway recreational and commercial vehicles, both non-articulated and articulated. Measurement techniques are intended to apply to these vehicles, with alterations primarily in the scale of facilities required. But some differences do exist between passenger cars and trucks, especially heavy trucks, such as differences in body/frame flexibility, suspension stiffness, and suspension friction. These will be addressed in this document or SAE J1574-2, where appropriate. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to define the basic design requirements for test equipment and the test procedures to be employed in measuring certain vehicle characteristics generally required for directional control simulation. In addition, data processing procedures are provided so that data from different laboratories can be directly compared. The companion Information Report gives the rationale behind the Recommended Practice, where appropriate. Copyright SAE International Provided by IHS under license with SAELicensee=NextEV USA, INC/5993526001, User=romano, paola Not for Resale, 02/28/2017 10:01:08 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,,,``,`,,```,,`,`,,,,,,`,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---SAE J1574-1 Revised OCT2012 Page 2 of 87 1.2 Assumptions and Limitations The approach used to develop this document was to consolidate and document existing technology as embodied in equipment and procedures currently employed for routine tests. As a result, the assumptions and limitations of those practices must be acknowledged in this document. The major assumptions stemming from this established document are: a. Static-suspension characteristics (kinematic and elastic) are valid for simulation and suspension comparison purposes. This does not apply to shock-absorber characteristics required to determine ride and roll damping. b. Phenomenological suspension descriptions, such as kinematic and elastic gradients, are valid for simulation and suspension comparison purposes. c. Kinematic and elastic suspension characteristics measured for the inertial loads and suspension-roll angles associated with the linear range are valid for simulating vehicle behavior in the linear range. d. Kinematic and elastic suspension characteristics associated with the linear range describe a system which may be approximated as linear. Therefore, they may be used in simulations using the principle of superposition and may be measured singly, with set points of other variables at zero or nominal value. In addition to these broad assumptions, two other assumptions related to the use of this document must be stated. First, it is assumed that the vehicle description and preparation, as described in Section 3, will be performed prior to any of the tests described in subsequent sections. (The procedures described in Sections 4 through 10 may be performed somewhat independently of each other, once those in Section 3 are complete.) Second, the terminology of SAE J670e will be observed wherever possible. The limitations associated with this document may be divided into those associated with the uses of the final data and the vehicle characteristics addressed. Limitations in both categories generally stem from the limitations of existing practices. Simulations which are not addressed are those involving lateral accelerations beyond the linear range, free control dynamics, combined lateral and longitudinal accelerations, accelerating and braking performance, or oscillations of any parts of the unsprung masses or steering system at frequencies above those associated with directional control. In addition, assumption 1.2b results in experimental procedures and suspension data which is not useful for multibody simulations such as ADAMS or DADS. Vehicle and component characteristics which are not addressed are those not required for directional control simulation in the linear range. While this list is clearly quite long, some bear mentioning for the convenience of the user of this document. These are: a. Suspension side view kinematic properties b. Suspension steer and camber compliances resulting from longitudinal force, overturning moment, and rolling resistance moment c. Kingpin and caster offsets d. Characteristics of fifth wheels of articulated vehicles e. Rotational inertias of wheels, tires, brakes, and driveline components Tire force and moment characteristics (addressed in SAE J1106 and SAE J1107) Copyright SAE International Provided by IHS under license with SAELicensee=NextEV USA, INC/5993526001, User=romano, paola Not for Resale, 02/28/2017 10:01:08 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,,,``,`,,```,,`,`,,,,,,`,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---SAE J1574-1 Revised OCT2012 Page 3 of 87 The first two of these may be addressed with methods analogous to those described in Sections 8 and 9. In addition, certain other vehicle characteristics will not be addressed due to their relative newness and the associated absence of established experimental practice. Examples of less conventional chassis systems which will not be fully addressed are active and adaptive suspension systems, four-wheel steering, and speed-sensitive steering. However, procedures formally discussed may well be adapted to these less conventional systems. Such adaptation may be discussed when appropriate. 1.3 Characteristics Measured The previous paragraphs covering purpose, scope, and assumptions and limitations have not explicitly listed the vehicle characteristics which will be addressed in this document. Table 1 does this, showing the section in which each is addressed and whether it is a suspension or total vehicle characteristic. In addition to this summary of variables measured, the list of variables for each section will be repeated in paragraph 1 of that section, in a different format, providing expected ranges for different vehicle types. After reviewing Table 1, the reader may see that some of the variables listed are not directly required for vehicle simulation or data reduction. Such a variable may have been included in Table 1 because it is required in the documentation process or in the determination of another variable. In addition, some variables listed may be measured very simply, precluding the need for an in-depth measurement practice or discussion thereof. 1.4 Nature of Measurements This document covers the measurement of a broad range of vehicle characteristics using an equally broad range of experimental practices. This paragraph briefly outlines the nature of these experimental approaches. The measurements of Sections 3 (Vehicle Description and Preparation) and 4 (Measurement of Dimensional and Geometric Characteristics) generally involve only measurements of linear dimensions, to varying degrees of accuracy. Measurement devices range from steel tapes to micrometers and are generally available in most vehicle shops. In addition, a flat, planar reference surface (bed plate) and certain specialized tools are required for a few of the measurements. In general, vehicle loading and suspension trim are important. The measurement of vehicle and component weights (Section 5) and center of gravity positions (Section 6) generally require the direct measurement of weight or force. Scales of varying load capacity are used for these measurements. The measurement of center of gravity positions also requires a specialized tilt table and the measurement of angular displacement. The measurement of component weights and center of gravity positions requires some vehicle disassembly. The measurement of moments and products of inertia (Section 7) requires very specialized equipment for inducing lightly damped vehicle oscillations about a specified axis. These measurements are based on the measurement of natural frequency and restoring moment(s). The measurements of Section 8 (Measurement of Suspension Kinematic Characteristics) generally require a prescribed steer or suspension displacement (ride or roll) and the measurement of steer or camber displacement. In some cases, equilibrium techniques can be used, allowing the indirect determination of a kinematic swing center. All of the measurements require very specialized facilities for providing the suspension or steering displacement, minimizing unwanted forces or moments, and allowing the determination of desired displacements. Copyright SAE International Provided by IHS under license with SAELicensee=NextEV USA, INC/5993526001, User=romano, paola Not for Resale, 02/28/2017 10:01:08 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,,,``,`,,```,,`,`,,,,,,`,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---SAE J1574-1 Revised OCT2012 Page 4 of 87 TABLE 1 - CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED Variable Section Front Suspension Rear Suspension Total Vehicle Dimensional and Geometric Characteristics: axle spread, tandem axle 4 x x dual spacing, dual axle 4 x x fifth wheel position 4 x pintle position 4 x roadwheel dimensions 4 x x stabilizer bar diameter 4 x x steering wheel diameter 4 x suspension or steering coordinates 4 x x suspension alignment 4 x x suspension trim height 4 x x tire pressure 4 x x tire tread depth 4 x x wheel track 4 x x wheelbase 4 x Vehicle and Component Weights: sprung weight 5 x tire normal forces 5 x x total vehicle weight 5 x unsprung weight 5 x x Center of Gravity Positions: sprung cg position 6 x total vehicle cg position 6 x unsprung cg position 6 x x Moments and Products of Inertia: sprung mass pitch moment 7 x sprung mass roll moment 7 x sprung mass yaw moment 7 x sprung mass roll-yaw product 7 x total vehicle pitch moment 7 x total vehicle roll moment 7 x total vehicle yaw moment 7 x total vehicle roll-yaw product 7 x unsprung mass pitch moment 7 x x unsprung mass roll moment 7 x x unsprung mass yaw moment 7 x x unsprung mass roll-yaw product 7 x x Suspension Kinematic Characteristics: overall steering ratio 8 x ride camber coefficient 8 x x ride caster coefficient 8 x ride shock absorber travel ratio 8 x x ride steer coefficient 8 x x roll camber coefficient 8 x x roll caster coefficient 8 x roll center height 8 x x roll shock absorber travel ratio 8 x x Copyright SAE International Provided by IHS under license with SAELicensee=NextEV USA, INC/5993526001, User=romano, paola Not for Resale, 02/28/2017 10:01:08 MST No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`,,,,``,`,,```,,`,`,,,,,,`,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---SAE J1574-1 Revised OCT2012 Page 5 of 87 TABLE 1 - CHARACTERISTICS MEASURED (CONTINUED) Variable Section Front Suspension Rear Suspension Total Vehicle roll steer coefficient 8 x x Suspension Elastic and Coulomb Friction Characteristics: aligning moment camber coefficient 9 x x aligning moment steer coefficient 9 x x lateral force camber coefficient 9 x x lateral force defl. coefficient 9 x x lateral force steer coefficient 9 x x ride Coulomb friction 9 x x ride rate 9 x x roll Coulomb friction 9 x x suspension roll rate 9 x x wheel rate 9 x x Shock Absorber Characteristics: bushing spring rate 10 x x damping coefficient 10 x x ride damping 10 x x roll damping 10 x x shock absorber spring rate 10 x x Similarly, the measurement of suspension elastic and Coulomb friction characteristics (Section 9) generally requires a prescribed suspension displacement (ride or roll) or an externally applied load (lateral force or aligning moment) and the measurement of wheel displacement (linear or angular). Again, very specialized facilities are required to provide the desired displacement or load, to minimize unwanted displacements or loads, and to allow the determination of desired displacements. These measurements are generally made with the tires on the vehicle; the complete rationale for this is discussed in 9.2.2 of SAE J1574-2 for Section 9, Measurement of Suspension Elastic and Coulomb Friction Characteristics. Other brief references can be found in SAE J1574-2 for this section, paragraph 1.5, and the Recommended Practice for Section 9, 9.2.2. Finally, the measurement of shock-absorber characteristics (Section 10) requires specialized equipment to stroke the shock absorber through a range of amplitudes and/or frequencies. Measurements of amplitude, frequency, and force are required. In many of these measurements, equivalent, or nearly equivalent, methods may exist. Where possible, alternatives are discussed
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